The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Truman Doctrine  1.Civil 1.Civil War in Greece. 2.Turkey 2.Turkey under pressure from the USSR. 3.The 3.The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. 4.The 4.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid. 5.U.S. 5.U.S. must stop spread of communism
Marshall Plan  1.“European Recovery Program.” 2.Secretary of State, George Marshall 3.The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” }The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. }Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania
Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2 nd } Power!
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung “Domino Theory”
The Invasion Begins June 25 – Early morning – N. Korean begins invasion of S. Korea. – NK hopes to force reunification as one Communist nation – The UN calls for an end to N. Korean Aggression June 27 – UN calls an emergency meeting of the security council and asks members to aid S. Korea June 28 th -29 th – Seoul is captured June 30 – Pres Truman orders ground forces into Korea and authorizes the bombing of N. Korea
Chinese Involvement Chairman Mao Tse Tung is watching American forces closely He has 500,000 troops waiting in Manchuria for the arrival of American Forces As the NKPA is pushed back across the 38 th parallel, Washington gives MacArthur permission to cross the parallel – Stop at any sign of Russian or Chinese intervention – DO NOT cross or even fire in the direction of the Yalu River
China Attacks Oct 15, 1950 – Mao sends in 1 st wave of troops Despite what he is hearing, MacArthur believes that it is nothing more than a handful of Chinese volunteers, not Army regulars “In order to hook a big fish, you must let the fish taste your bait.” – Chairman Mao Tse Tung MacArthur orders his men north
Further Devastation All UN forces now south of the 38 th Parallel American forces now faced with total and humiliating defeat – Once again in this war the tables are turned MacArthur wants to use as many as 50 atomic bombs against the Chinese – US supporters against the idea – Nov
Conclusion > 5 million people die in Korea from 50 - 53 America – 54,000 KIA Chinese – 148,000 KIA Remainder – N & S Korean troops and civilians Main Lesson Learned – If you go to war, go to win. – Vietnam will serve to reinforce that point