The Early Cold War: 1947- Vietnam The Early Cold War: 1947- Vietnam
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Truman Doctrine  1.Civil 1.Civil War in Greece. 2.Turkey 2.Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. 3.The 3.The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. 4.The 4.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
Marshall Plan  1.“European Recovery Program.” 2.Secretary of State, George Marshall 3.The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
Background There were many questions facing the Allies following World War II One of the biggest involved what should be done with Germany – Having suffered from German Aggression twice in the first half of the 20 th Century, France and the USSR wanted a weakened Germany
The Solution Create occupation zones based on the way in which the armies had entered the country The Soviets received the agricultural areas in the east, the British received the industrial areas to the north, and the Americans received the scenic areas to the south. The French zone was later carved out of part of the American zone.
What Caused the Blockade? Europe was not recovering from the war as quickly as hoped The United States came up with the idea of combining the three western zones into “Trizonia” to help Germany recover The Soviet Union, opposed Germany unity and imposed a short, possible test, blockade in April 1948, preventing supplies from reaching Berlin
The Western zones decided to replace the nearly worthless German currency with new money, a move the Soviets ferociously opposed In response, the Soviets imposed a total ground blockade in July 1948.
What is a President to Do? Truman’s advisors offered many solutions: Lucius Clay, Military Governor of Germany wanted to force a convoy into Berlin, risking World War III, but the British said no The British suggested that the Allies use an airlift to supply Berlin to buy time for negotiations with the Soviets.
Though the two airports in Berlin had only one runway each, the allies began airlifting supplies into Berlin
The Solution Before long the planes were landing every three minutes, each one bringing ten tons of needed supplies
Conditions in Berlin People were living on as little as 1000 to 1500 calories per day even before the blockade The Allies determined they needed to supply at least 1700 calories a day to the 2.3 million people residing in West Berlin
Gail Halvorsen (the Candy Bomber) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H- 4vE6DCLeU
The End of the Blockade In spite of the obstacles involved, the Berlin Airlift was maintained and the Soviets eventually gave up and removed the blockade
Between the 25th of June 1948 and the 1st of August 1949, two million two hundred thousand occupants of West Berlin were supplied 2,223,000 short tons of supplies in 266.600 flights.
The Arms Race: }The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. }Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
HOA Can you use the following words to create a brief narrative of the start of the Cold War? AppeasementYalta Potsdam Truman FultonMarshall Plan ContainmentFree Elections GreeceOccupation Atomic BombsNATO/WARSAW PACT
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania