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Speeches. Speeches A speech is a nonfiction work that is delivered orally to an audience. Some speeches are composed in writing before they are spoken.

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Presentation on theme: "Speeches. Speeches A speech is a nonfiction work that is delivered orally to an audience. Some speeches are composed in writing before they are spoken."— Presentation transcript:

1 Speeches

2 Speeches A speech is a nonfiction work that is delivered orally to an audience. Some speeches are composed in writing before they are spoken aloud. Others are composed less formally as they are being presented, usually with notes as a guide.

3 Types of Speeches Political speech – focuses on an issue relating to government or politics. The speaker tries to persuade people to think or act in a certain way. Example – Patrick Henry’s “Speech in the Virginia Convention” (pg 100). Image from

4 Types of Speeches Address – a formal speech that is prepared for a special occasion Example – Abraham Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” (pg 538). Image from

5 Types of Speeches Sermon – is a speech that is usually based on scriptual text and is intended to provide religious instruction Example – Jonathan Edward’s “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (pg 86). Image from

6 Persuasive Techniques

7 The methods that a speaker or a writer uses to sway an audience Most speeches are a mixture of persuasive appeals

8 Logical Appeal - Logos Builds a well-reasoned argument based on evidence, such as facts, statistics, or expert testimony makes sense!!!Logos creates an argument that makes sense!!!

9 Emotional Appeal - Pathos Attempts to arouse the audience’s feelings Often uses loaded words that convey strong connotations Think of the word “pathetic” – meaning “to pity” or “to cause sympathy” EMOTIONSPathos deals with the EMOTIONS

10 Ethical Appeal - Ethos Linked to the audience’s perception of the trustworthiness and credibility of the speaker or writer This is referring to credibility and character We tend to believe people whom we respect and trust

11 Rhetorical Devices Patterns of words and ideas that create emphasis and stir the audience’s emotions Repetition – restating an idea using the same words Patrick Henry – “The war is inevitable – and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come!”

12 Rhetorical Devices Patterns of words and ideas that create emphasis and stir the audience’s emotions Restatement – expressing the same idea using different words Abraham Lincoln – “… we can not dedicate – we can not consecrate – we can not hallow – this ground.”

13 Rhetorical Devices Patterns of words and ideas that create emphasis and stir the audience’s emotions Parallelism – repeating a grammatical structure Abraham Lincoln – “With malice toward none; with charity for all …”

14 Rhetorical Devices Patterns of words and ideas that create emphasis and stir the audience’s emotions Antithesis – using strongly contrasting words, images or ideas John F. Kennedy – “… ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.”

15 Rhetorical Devices Patterns of words and ideas that create emphasis and stir the audience’s emotions Rhetorical questions – asking questions for effect, not to get answers Benjamin Franklin – “From such an assembly can a perfect production be expected?”

16 Speech from “Miracle”

17 Great moments are born from great opportunity. And that’s what you have here tonight, boys. That’s what you’ve earned here, tonight. One game. If we played ‘em ten times, they might win nine. But not this game. Not tonight. Tonight, we skate with ‘em. Tonight, we stay with 'em, and we shut them down because we can! Tonight, we are the greatest hockey team in the world. You were born to be hockey players -- every one of ya. And you were meant to be here tonight. This is your time. Their time -- is done. It's over. I'm sick and tired of hearin' about what a great hockey team the Soviets have. Screw'em! This is your time!! Now go out there and take it!

18 Repetition – Parallel Structure Great moments are born from great opportunity. And that’s what you have here tonight, boys. That’s what you’ve earned here, tonight. One game. If we played ‘em ten times, they might win nine. But not this game. Not tonight. Tonight, we skate with ‘em. Tonight, we stay with 'em, and we shut them down because we can! Tonight, we are the greatest hockey team in the world. You were born to be hockey players -- every one of ya. And you were meant to be here tonight. This is your time. Their time -- is done. It's over. I'm sick and tired of hearin' about what a great hockey team the Soviets have. Screw'em! This is your time!! Now go out there and take it!

19 Speech from “Remember The Titans”

20 Anybody know what this place is? This is Gettysburg. This is where they fought the Battle of Gettysburg. Fifty thousand men died right here on this field, fightin' the same fight that we're still fightin' amongst ourselves today. This green field right here was painted red, bubblin' with the blood of young boys, smoke and hot lead pourin' right through their bodies. Listen to their souls, men: 'I killed my brother with malice in my heart. Hatred destroyed my family.' You listen. And you take a lesson from the dead. If we don't come together, right now, on this hallowed ground, we too will be destroyed -- just like they were. I don't care if you like each other or not. But you will respect each other. And maybe -- I don't know -- maybe we'll learn to play this game like men.

21 Comparisons – Similes, Metaphors and Analogies Anybody know what this place is? This is Gettysburg. This is where they fought the Battle of Gettysburg. Fifty thousand men died right here on this field, fightin' the same fight that we're still fightin' amongst ourselves today. This green field right here was painted red, bubblin' with the blood of young boys, smoke and hot lead pourin' right through their bodies. Listen to their souls, men: 'I killed my brother with malice in my heart. Hatred destroyed my family.' You listen. And you take a lesson from the dead. If we don't come together, right now, on this hallowed ground, we too will be destroyed -- just like they were. I don't care if you like each other or not. But you will respect each other. And maybe -- I don't know -- maybe we'll learn to play this game like men.

22 Speech from “Judgment at Nuremberg”

23 Ernst Janning said, "We succeeded beyond our wildest dreams." Why did we succeed, Your Honor? What about the rest of the world? Did it not know the intentions of the Third Reich? Did it not hear the words of Hitler's broadcast all over the world? Did it not read his intentions in Mein Kampf, published in every corner of the world?Mein Kampf Where's the responsibility of the Soviet Union, who signed in 1939 the pact with Hitler, enabled him to make war? Are we not to find Russia guilty? Where's the responsibility of the Vatican, who signed in 1933 the Concordat with Hitler, giving him his first tremendous prestige? Are we not to find the Vatican guilty?1933 the Concordat with Hitler Where's the responsibility of the world leader, Winston Churchill, who said in an open letter to the London Times in !! Your Honor -- "were England to suffer national disaster should pray to God to send a man of the strength of mind and will of an Adolf Hitler!" Are we not to find Winston Churchill guilty? Where is the responsibility of those American industrialists, who helped Hitler to rebuild his armaments and profited by that rebuilding?!! Are we not to find the American industrialists guilty? No, Your Honor. No! Germany alone is not guilty: The whole world is as responsible for Hitler's Germany.

24 Rhetorical Questioning Ernst Janning said, "We succeeded beyond our wildest dreams." Why did we succeed, Your Honor? What about the rest of the world? Did it not know the intentions of the Third Reich? Did it not hear the words of Hitler's broadcast all over the world? Did it not read his intentions in Mein Kampf, published in every corner of the world?Mein Kampf Where's the responsibility of the Soviet Union, who signed in 1939 the pact with Hitler, enabled him to make war? Are we not to find Russia guilty? Where's the responsibility of the Vatican, who signed in 1933 the Concordat with Hitler, giving him his first tremendous prestige? Are we not to find the Vatican guilty?1933 the Concordat with Hitler Where's the responsibility of the world leader, Winston Churchill, who said in an open letter to the London Times in !! Your Honor -- "were England to suffer national disaster should pray to God to send a man of the strength of mind and will of an Adolf Hitler!" Are we not to find Winston Churchill guilty? Where is the responsibility of those American industrialists, who helped Hitler to rebuild his armaments and profited by that rebuilding?!! Are we not to find the American industrialists guilty? No, Your Honor. No! Germany alone is not guilty: The whole world is as responsible for Hitler's Germany.

25 Speech from “To Kill A Mockingbird”

26 And so, a quiet, humble, respectable negro, who has had the unmitigated TEMERITY to feel sorry for a white woman, has had to put his word against two white peoples. The defendant is not guilty. But somebody in this courtroom is. Now, gentlemen, in this country our courts are the great levelers. In our courts, all men are created equal. I'm no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and of our jury system. That's no ideal to me. That is a living, working reality! Now I am confident that you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence that you have heard, come to a decision, and restore this man to his family. In the name of God, do your duty. In the name of God, believe Tom Robinson.

27 Flattery And so, a quiet, humble, respectable negro, who has had the unmitigated TEMERITY to feel sorry for a white woman, has had to put his word against two white peoples. The defendant is not guilty. But somebody in this courtroom is. Now, gentlemen, in this country our courts are the great levelers. In our courts, all men are created equal. I'm no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and of our jury system. That's no ideal to me. That is a living, working reality! Now I am confident that you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence that you have heard, come to a decision, and restore this man to his family. In the name of God, do your duty. In the name of God, believe Tom Robinson.

28 Images from /http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2009/04/14/Obamas-speech-on-the-economy/UPI / june in-front-of-the-brandenburg-gate-in-west-berlin-photo-from-the-german-missions-to- the-united-states.jpghttp://getdclu.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/president-ronald-reagans-tear-down-this-wall-speech- june in-front-of-the-brandenburg-gate-in-west-berlin-photo-from-the-german-missions-to- the-united-states.jpg


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