Presentation on theme: "Persuasion Is All Around You! “Can You Hear Me Now?”"— Presentation transcript:
Persuasion Is All Around You! “Can You Hear Me Now?”
What is persuasion? A means of convincing people: to buy a certain product to believe something or act in a certain way to agree with a point of view
Common persuasive techniques often used in writing Logical (rational) Emotional appeal Ethical appeal Rhetorical devices (question) Parallelism Purpose?
Logical: builds a well-reasoned argument based on evidence, such as facts, statistics, or expert testimony. “OnStar service inside your car is better than carrying a cell phone because a cell phone can’t call for you when you’re injured.”
Logical appeal in writing- A rational appeal against hunting, on the other hand, might begin as follows: "Every year sportsmen buy their hunting licenses and legally kill the state allotted limit of animals; however, evidence shows that this practice must be stopped because the annual "harvest" always exceeds the ability of nature to replenish the dwindling animal supply...."
Emotional Appeal: attempts to arouse the audience’s feelings, often by using loaded words that convey strong connotations. Writers and advertisers use many techniques to convince you to agree with them or buy their product.
Emotional appeal in writing- If you are writing an essay against hunting, for example, an emotional appeal might begin as follows: "Every year hundreds of bloodthirsty killers go out and ruthlessly slaughter thousands of innocent, helpless animals...." Obviously, many words in the previous sentence are emotionally charged.
Ethical Appeal: linked to the audience’s perception of the trustworthiness and credibility of the speaker or writer. Nike combines the images of a young Jackie Joyner-Kersee with the mature athlete in an ad that announces Nike's P.L.A.Y. (Participate in the Lives of America's Youth) campaign, a campaign sponsored by Nike to promote the athletic endeavors of young children. Using Joyner-Kersee's story and image helps add ethical appeal to the campaign, since she gives testimony to the importance of athletics in her life.
Rhetorical questions: asking questions for effect, not to get answers A statement suggesting that everyone is using a specific product, so you should too "Aren't you glad you use Dial? Don't you wish everybody did?" (1960s television advertisement for Dial soap)
Rhetorical Questions continued… A rhetorical question implies its own answer; it’s a way of making a point. Examples: “Aren’t you ashamed of yourself?” “What business is it of yours?” “How did that idiot ever get elected?” “What is so rare as a day in June?” These aren’t questions in the usual sense, but statements in the form of a question.
Parallelism: repeating a grammatical structure Parallelism takes place when two similar phrases are joined to make just one sentence. For example: Tom plays the piano. Tom plays the violin. Parallelism = Tom plays the piano and the violin.
Parallelism continued… Nouns Jack eats fish and chicken. Sarah writes poetry and short stories. Verbs Our neighbors have moved and have sold their house. My sister walks or rides her bike to work. Adjectives The class is not only fun but also helpful. She is not only strong but also fast. Adverbs Peter drives quickly and aggressively. They work carefully and effectively.
Parallelism continued… Parallelism can also take place with phrases. This type of parallel structure can be more difficult to recognize as the sentences are more complex. Here are some examples: Having fun is as important as working hard. She advised me to get some sleep and take some time off work.
Speech from “Miracle” http://www.americanrhetoric.com/MovieSpeeches/moviespeechmiracle3.html
Repetition – Parallel Structure Great moments are born from great opportunity. And that’s what you have here tonight, boys. That’s what you’ve earned here, tonight. One game. If we played ‘em ten times, they might win nine. But not this game. Not tonight. Tonight, we skate with ‘em. Tonight, we stay with 'em, and we shut them down because we can! Tonight, we are the greatest hockey team in the world. You were born to be hockey players -- every one of ya. And you were meant to be here tonight. This is your time. Their time -- is done. It's over. I'm sick and tired of hearin' about what a great hockey team the Soviets have. Screw'em! This is your time!! Now go out there and take it!