Persuasive Rhetoric Techniques of and definitions associated with persuasive speaking and writing.
Rhetoric Rhetoric: the art of communicating ideas Persuasive rhetoric: reasoned arguments in favor of or against particular beliefs or courses of action. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God is an example of persuasive rhetoric—Edwards was attempting to persuade his congregation to be “born again” to be saved
Effective persuasion Should engage both the mind and emotions of the audience Make your audience think the problem is important enough for them to care about Shows that the writer’s position has a firm moral basis
There are three basic types of appeals in persuasive arguments: 1)Logical appeals 2)Emotional appeals 3)Ethical appeals
Logical appeals Provide rational arguments to support writers’ claims –Deductive approach: start with generalization or premise then provide examples –Inductive approach: start with examples then draw a conclusion
Emotional appeals Often based on examples of suffering or potential threats. Often include loaded language— language rich in connotations and vivid images (brilliant –vs- smart or hideous –vs- ugly)
Ethical appeals Based on shared moral values Call upon the audience’s sense of justice, right, and virtue
Techniques used in persuasion 1)Identify your theme/purpose -- Lets your audience know what your main idea is—what action or belief you would like them to take 2)Identify your audience -- ALWAYS use language and arguments appropriate to your audience!
Techniques cont’d Tone: the author’s attitude or feelings toward his or her subject matter –Conveyed through diction (remember loaded language?), details, and direct statements
Techniques cont’d Elevated language: people tend to give more credence to someone who sounds intelligent Rhetorical questions: Questions that don’t require answers—the answers are considered obvious
Techniques cont’d Repetition: repeating a point to emphasize its importance –Expressing ideas in the same way also shows the audience that those points are connected
Other definitions Allusion: a reference to a person, place, event or literary work with which the author believes the reader will be familiar –Patrick Henry warns colonists not to be “betrayed with a kiss” (a Biblical allusion to the Apostle Judas, who, with a kiss, identified Jesus to Roman soldiers)
Other definitions cont’d Simile: comparison using like or as –Abigail Adams writes that power and liberty are like heat and moisture Metaphor: comparing one thing to another NOT using like or as –Adams writes “our country is…the first and greatest parent.”