Presentation on theme: "The Art of Persuasion Ethos, Pathos, Logos & Rhetorical Devices."— Presentation transcript:
The Art of Persuasion Ethos, Pathos, Logos & Rhetorical Devices
What is Rhetoric?What is Rhetoric? Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. The goal of persuasion is to change others’ point of view or to move others to take action. The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos, and logos began in Greece. This was developed by Aristotle.
Who was Aristotle? Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher who studied the art of persuasion. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great how to properly argue and perform a public speech. Plato, another famous Greek philosopher, was his teacher.
Ethos, Logos and Pathos Aristotle Plato In approximately 300 B.C.E. Aristotle, who was a famous Greek philosopher, wrote a book entitled, “The Art of Rhetoric.” In his book, Aristotle identified the three methods of persuasion. He called them ethos, pathos and logos. The BookThe Man
Ethos, Pathos and Logos 1.Ethos = an ethical or moral argument 2.Pathos = an emotional argument 3. Logos = a logical argument
Ethos The word "ethos" came from the Greek word ethikos meaning moral or showing moral character. It refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. An example of ethos is an ethical opinion or statement from a credible source. “I am an ethical expert, so believe what I say.” For example, when a trusted doctor gives you advice, you may not understand all of the medical reasoning behind the advice, but you nonetheless follow the directions because you believe that the doctor knows what s/he is talking about.
Logos Logos means logic Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect, appealing to the readers’ sense of what is logical. Logos is an argument based on facts, evidence and reason.
REVIEW Ethos, Pathos and Logos 1.Ethos = an ethical or moral argument 2.Pathos = an emotional argument 3. Logos = a logical argument
Rhetorical Devices Rhetorical devices are the nuts and bolts of speech and writing; the parts that make a communication work. Separately, each part of is meaningless, but once put together they create a powerful effect on the listener/reader.
Parallelism Parallelism is using similar structures to reinforce a point Structure- repetition of grammatically similar words, phrases, clauses, or sentences to emphasize a point or stir the emotions of a reader/listener.
Parallelism Example The coach told the players: “You will get some sleep tonight, you will not eat too much right before the game, and you will do some warm-up exercises before the game.”
Repetition the use of the same word, phrase, or sound more than once for emphasis –Repetition can be effective in creating a sense of structure and power. In both speech and literature, repeating small phrases can ingrain an idea in the minds of the audience.
Difference between Repetition and Parallelism Repetition focuses on repeating the word whereas parallelism repeats the structure or idea that is being conveyed The two typically go hand in hand.
Allusion Short, informal reference to famous person, event, or story. –Relies on reader/listener to be familiar with the reference and hidden meaning. Used to stimulate ideas, associations, add extra information. If I want to persuade you to wash your hands, I may say “thou shalt wash thy hands”. –I am trusting that you respect the commandments and, hence, my statement.
Juxtaposition the act of positioning close together –Obama talks about the “not-so-young people who braved the bitter cold and scorching heat to knock on doors of perfect strangers” The juxtaposition of “bitter cold” and “scorching heat” stresses the extreme conditions in which people campaigned for Obama, convincing the audience of their dedication
Rhetorical Question Rhetorical Question- question not answered by writer b/c the answer is obvious or obviously desired. Used in persuasion to encourage the reader/listener to reflect on what the answer must be. “How much longer must our people endure this injustice?”
Parts of An Argument Claim – the anchor of the essay; the statement which reveals the opinion, idea, belief, or argument. Also referred to as: –Thesis –Argument –Premise –Proposition –Assertion
Is the Argument Valid? Strolling through the woods is usually fun. The sun is out, the temperature is cool, there is no rain in the forecast, the flowers are in bloom, and the birds are singing. Therefore, it should be fun to take a walk through the woods now.