2 Rhetoric: (1)The art of speaking and writing effectively Rhetoric: (1)The art of speaking and writing effectively. (2) Art of persuasion through language.
3 AristotleCame up with three ways in which a speaker can appeal to his or her audience:ETHOSPATHOSLOGOS(appeal (v) (n): to make a serious or urgent request, typically to the public)
4 ETHOS An appeal to ETHICS (Ethos = Ethics) A means of convincing someone of the character or credibility of the speaker.Why should the audience trust the speaker?What makes the speaker someone whom I should listen to regarding this topic?
5 Ethos Continued…The Greek word ethos is related to our word ethics or ethical, but a more accurate modern translation might be “image.”Aristotle uses ethos to refer to the speaker’s character as it appears to the audience. Aristotle says that if we believe that a speaker has good sense, good moral character, and goodwill, we are inclined to believe what that speaker says. Today we might add that a speaker should also appear to have the appropriate expertise or authority to speak knowledgeably about the subject matter.Ethos is often the first thing we notice, so it creates the first impression that influences how we perceive the rest.
6 PATHOS An appeal to EMOTION A way of convincing an audience of an argument by creating an emotional response. (Pathos=Passion)In what ways is the speaker trying to get at the emotions of his or her audience?In what parts of the speech do I FEEL something?TTTPNTY: What might someone use within a speech in order to create pathos?
7 Pathos Continued…Aristotle points out that emotions such as anger, pity, fear, and their opposites, powerfully influence our rational judgments. Due to this fact, much of our political discourse and much of the advertising we experience is directed toward moving our emotions.
8 LOGOS An appeal to LOGIC (Logos= Logic) A way of persuading an audience by reasonWhere is logic and reasoning being used to support the argument?How can ideas be set up in a way that uses logic and reasoning to persuade?TTTPNTY: What are ways in which authors can use logos?
9 Logos ContinuedIn our society, logic and rationality are highly valued and this type of persuasive strategy is usually privileged over appeals to the character of the speaker or to the emotions of the audience. However, formal logic and scientific reasoning are usually not appropriate for general audiences, so we must rely on a more rhetorical type of reasoning.
10 To consider… Your Message: Your Audience Based on the message within your speech, you will want to use the appeals differently.Ask yourself, what is my message and how can the various appeals be used to convey my message and persuade my audience?Your AudienceBased on who you are speaking to within your speech, you will want to use the appeals differently.Ex: You would not speak to a group of Kindergarteners in the same way you would speak to a group of CEOs.(Your speech should be aimed at your tenth grade peers!)