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America and World War II

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1 America and World War II
Chapter 12 America and World War II

2 Essays – Chapter 12 What were some of the difficulties the Allies faced when planning OPERATION OVERLORD? How did they attempt to overcome these difficulties? What kind of discrimination did minorities in the military experience? (give specific examples) How did the situation change for some minorities as the war progressed? Describe how the US developed its ultimate weapon (MANHATTAN PROJECT). What reaction did the scientists have to their creation? What reaction did the world have when the US dropped the bomb?

3 Building up the Military
When Hitler invaded Poland, FDR began building up the US military When France surrendered to Germany, Congress approved the draft (1st peacetime draft ever) YOURE IN THE ARMY NOW 60,000+ will enlist in the month after Pearl Harbor This overwhelmed the US training capacity New bases had to be opened Many lived in tents rather than barracks for a long time Recruits came from all over the country and the training not only got them ready for combat but united them as soldiers

4 A Segregated Military The Military segregated (or separated) troops by race Pushing for “DOUBLE V” Some African Americans did not want to support the war or the country that treated them like 2nd class citizens - DISENFRANCHISED But most wanted to fight against racism, both in Europe and for themselves African Americans in Combat Under pressure, FDR ordered the military to recruit African Americans and put them into combat Tuskegee Airmen were the 1st African American fighter wing trained. They flew over 200 missions and never lost a bomber Other Minorities: POD assignment (p ) read, take notes, share what other minority groups experienced and did in the military

5 Other Minorities Japanese Americans served in Europe even when they were being forced into “INTERNMENT CAMPS on the west coast Hispanic Americans will volunteer in large numbers despite discrimination Native American served as “CODE TALKERS” again even when they were forced to live on reservations Jewish Americans will serve in war and become leaders of the Jewish community after the war because the Holocaust killed so many Segregation did not end in the military officially until 1948, but the outstanding service of various minorities when a long way in proving they were equals on all levels

6 Women Join the Military
The Army enlisted women for the first time but barred them from combat (WAC’s) Most jobs for women freed men up for combat (clerical, transportation, etc) Coast Guard, Name and marines followed suit and set up women’s units Another 68,000 served as nurses in the Army and Navy 300 women served as pilots delivering planes

7 American Economy during World War II
Fighting a war depending on INDUSTY and the US was uniquely able to increase output CONVERTING THE ECONOMY War production rapidly increased after Pearl Harbor FDR believed gov’t and business had to work together National Defense Advisory Committee created to coordinate war production. Leading business leaders were asked to help “Cost-plus” contracts sped up production and convinced many companies to convert to war production

8 American Industry gets the job done
By the summer of 1942, US industry in full war mode TANKS REPLACE CARS Automobile industry ideal for mass producing military trucks, jeep, tanks. Will produce 1/3 all wartime equipment Also produced rifles, helmets, artillery etc Ford retooled to build the enormous B-24 liberator bomber Will build 8,600 aircraft in 3 years BUILDING LIBERTY SHIPS Kaiser’s shipyards will surpass them all Before the war, it took 244 days to build a “liberty ship” Kaiser will cut that down to 41 days Kaiser will build 30% of all military ships during the war

9 Life on the Home Front Life in the US will change dramatically
Unlike Europe, which lived with the devastation of war, the US actually benefitted Mobilizing the economy finally ended the Great Depression, with 19 million new jobs The average household’s income nearly doubled Families did have to move to go to these new jobs Housing was difficult/cheap Prejudice was horrible Goods were rationed and taxes were high

10 POD Assignment (20-30 minutes)
In your pod, each of you will read p Take notes on your sheet while you read HOW DID EACH MINORITY GROUP CONTRIBUTE TO THE WAR EFFORT AT HOME? When done reading, discuss the 3 minority groups (women, African Americans, Mexican farm workers) Compare notes – be ready to discuss with the class TEACHER – call on students randomly and ask how each of these groups contributed to the war effort at home

11 Life on the Home Front Women in the Defense Plants
During the GD, women expected to stay home, leave jobs for men But during the war, women were needed in war factories (2.5 million) Also worked for government in offices (4 million) At end of war, most women will voluntarily leave jobs, but perception of women had permanently changed African Americans Demand War Work Executive Order 8802 – no discrimination in factories getting government contracts Many factories then recruited African American workers – Boeing/Seattle Mexican Farm Workers BRACERO program – deal with Mexican government for workers to come to US and work in the agricultural fields 20,000+ will come to US and aid in food production Migrant workers became and are still HUGELY important to the SW food industry

12 Rosie the Riveter

13 A Nation on the Move Millions of jobs created, Americans move to go to jobs New industrial regions created – South & Southwest Congress authorized $150 million for housing and FDR created the NHA (Nat’l Housing Agency) to coordinate Racism will increase as minorities move into mostly white regions for jobs Detroit Riots – city wide riots when African American and white teens clashed – 34 dead (25 black, 9 white) Zoot Suit Riots – clashes between Hispanic “zoot suiters” and sailors led to riots in LA

14 Relocation Japanese, German and Italian
After Pearl Harbor – FDR signed an order that allowed the US military to declare any part of the US a military zone 4 days after Pearl Harbor, Japanese sub will shell an oil refinery in CA Most of west coast declared a military zone People of Japanese descent were ordered “interned” (This Was Life for Japanese-Americans During WWII – youtube) Supreme Court ruled it OK (later overturned themselves) 1,000’s of people of German/Italian descent also had their freedoms restricted (“enemy aliens”) – they were subject to travel restrictions, seizure of property More than 5,000 will be arrested and “interned” in camps for the duration of the war

15 Daily Life in Wartime Wages and prices began to rise as soon as the war began because of the high demand for labor and goods Government created agencies to oversea the economy. They regulated wages and prices through out the war OPACS (Office of Price Admin. And Civilian Supply) OES (Office of Economic Stabilization) WLB (War Labor Board) – mediated wage disputes/prevent strikes

16 Support and Sacrifices
Rationing – (Newsreel: A look back at food rationing during World War II) OPACS rationed key strategic materials Each family received a “coupon book” for different foods Coffee, meat, sugar, etc Gas rationed, speed restricted, miles driven restricted Victory Gardens – people grew food where they could Vegetables were canned for later Drives – tin, rubber, aluminum and steel Taxes and War Bonds Higher taxes – government collected only 45% of cost of war War Bonds – sold to “loan” the government money for the war

17 Hollywood goes to War OWI (Office of War Information) used to improve the public’s understanding of war and its role Filmmakers asked “Does this help the US win the war” when they were making movies Movies made with a very PRO-US and anti-German slant Youtube (1942 the ductators)

18 Political Cartoons 1. Identify Images 2. Read words
What do you think the author/artist is trying to get across to the reader?

19 War with Japan The attack on Pearl Harbor crippled the US’s ability to slow Japan down FALL OF THE PHILIPPINES A few hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked the Philippines Badly outnumbers, US and Filipino troops lost control Retreating the Bataan Peninsula, General D. MacArthur help on for 3 months Realizing the capture of an American general would hurt moral, MacArthur ordered to leave “I shall return” Troops finally surrendered and were forced to march 65 miles without food or water – THE BATAAN DEATH MARCH (youtube video) 78,000 set off on the march – 15,000 died Captured nurses and civilians were held captive for the remainder of the war

20 Doolittle Raid FDR needed to raise moral after Pearl Harbor
He wanted to bomb Tokyo in retaliation Japanese ships kept the US aircraft carriers too far away Decision was made to use longer range bombers (which could take off but not land on carriers) After bombing Tokyo, they would land in China On April 18, bombs fell on Japan for the first time Huge boost for America – we had returned fire

21 Japan changes Strategy
Japan had planned to cut off American supplies to Australia but after the Tokyo bombing, they wanted revenge Midway Islands were the last US base in the Pacific. Japan believed it they attacked there, it would lure the US into battle. Japan believed they could finish the US Navy off, once and for all Also, planned attack on New Guinea (to cut off supplies to Australia) US had broken Japan’s code and learned of the attack 2 carriers sent – 1st all-air battle – Japan able to sink 1 carrier and damage the other But the US prevented the Japanese from taking New Guinea Australia would be used as base for entire war

22 Navajo Code Talkers Radios used to communicate, easy to intercept
Navajo (unwritten) language used to pass messages Only Navajo could speak/understand This was kept an ABSOUTE secret for over 40 years In 2001 Congress awarded the Navajo Code Talkers the Congressional Gold Medal for their unique contributions during the war


24 Battle of Midway 6 months after Pearl Harbor, the US (ability to crack the Japanese code) learned that Japan planned to attack Midway Island Admiral Nimitz planned to ambush the Japanese The Americans had been able to repair the damage to more ships than the Japanese thought Within minutes of the attack beginning, 3 Japanese carriers were burning/sinking The Battle of Midway was the turning point for the Japanese. It was their last OFFENSE attack From here on, the US was pushing Japan back

25 Driving Japan Back Island Hopping – 1,000’s of islands were controlled by the Japanese The US Marines carried out a new plan – island hopping Cut off supplies by bypassing several islands and attacking where the Japanese were not ready Build and airstrip on the island Jump ahead several islands and repeat The Japanese fighters were fanatical – high losses As the US controlled islands nearer to Japan, it was able to begin bombing the mainlands of Japan

26 MacArthur Returns Philippines were a key island to control (both tactically and morally) MacArthur led the charge to retake the Philippines (the island nation he had been pushed off of) which was more than 600 miles ahead of the lines 700 ships amasses along with 160,000 troops Japan defended the Philippines with everything they could use – last stop before the home islands KAMIKAZI fighters used for the first time (much to the US’s amazement) Battle for the Philippines will be costly 100,000 Filipino fighers will die Many Japanese fighters will retreat into the forests and will fight long after the surrender of Japan

27 War in Europe Halting the Germans
Stalin demanded the Allies (England and US) attack Germany to create a 2 front war Churchill did not believe they were ready, convinced FDR to attack the Nazi’s strategic locations NORTH AFRICA – July 1942 FDR did for 2 reasons: experience for the troops & it would give back control to a key strategic region (Egypt) to England Rommel (the Desert Fox – German) would meet up with Montgomery (British) and Patton (US) in the battle for North Africa In May of 1943, the Germans surrendered in North Africa Now the US/GB were in position to go after Europe through Italy

28 Battle of the Atlantic After war declared between the US and Germany, U-boats entered coastal waters off the US east coast American cargo ships were easy target CONVOY SYSTEM used to protect shipping Spring 1942 – Germans sunk over 1.2 m tons of cargo In the same timeframe, the US produced more than 1.1 m tons of new shipping US developed more effective ways of finding, tracking and sinking U-boats (sonar, depth charges) The Battle of the Atlantic turned in favor of the Allies

29 Battle for Stalingrad

30 Battle of Stalingrad Hitler believed to defeat Stalin, he needed to destroy the Russian economy – he also wanted their OIL May 1942 – Hitler ordered his troops to capture the oil fields, farms and factories in S. Russia/Ukraine Stalingrad was a key shipping center. If the Germans took Stalingrad, they could cut off resources to the Soviet military Hitler ordered his troops to take/hold Stalingrad at all costs Soviet military/people will fight back, will not fall 250,000 German troops taken prisoner Each side lost ½ million soldiers Loss here put Germany on the defensive for the first time

31 Striking Germany & Italy
Allies control of North Africa KEY to next step At Casablanca Conference, FDR & Churchill agree to attack Germany by air and thru Italy STRATEGIC BOMBING: US/British Air Forces had been bombing Germany/Berlin constantly for over a year before the Casablanca Conf. (4,000 tons of bombs per month) From Jan 43 thru May 45, the US/GB will increase their bombing to 53,000 per month Bombing did not destroy Germany’s economy or crush their morale, but it did severely damage the oil supply and railroad system Bombing also destroyed factories, making it impossible for Germany to replace war supplies lost in battles By June 44, the US/GB controlled the air


33 Striking the “Soft Underbelly” of Europe
US/GB would first attack Germany from North Africa through Italy – the “soft underbelly”- in 1943 Within a month, the King of Italy (Victor Emmanuel) called Mussolini in – the government of Italy arrested Mussolini and began negotiation a surrender Germany seized control of northern Italy and continued to fight and returned Mussolini to power For the next 5 months, fierce fighting between the Allies and Axis troops finally ended when the Allies broke through (Allied casualties in Italy – 300,000_

34 Tehran Conference FDR & Stalin met before the Allies invaded France
FDR and Stalin agreed to split up Germany after the war so it would never threaten world peace again Stalin agreed that after Germany was defeated, the USSR would help the US defeat Japan Stalin also agreed to an international peacekeeping organization after the war (United Nations)

35 D-Day Read p. 305-307 about D-Day Take notes as you read 5-W’s WHO

36 D-Day (Operation Overlord)
The final part of defeating Hitler was to invade France and create a 3 front battle PLANNING OPERATION OVERLORD Hitler had fortified the north coast of France The most logical place to invade would be at Calais “trickery used to deceive the Nazi’s” But NORMANDY would be the actual site The largest amphibian landing in history Area protected by air cover Area where mass landing of machinery could take place Area where hundreds of thousands of troops could land and stay, preparing to push further into France

37 D-Day By Spring 1944, 1.5 million American soldiers, 5 million tons of equipment and 12, 000 airplanes had been sent to England June 6, 1944 picked as the day (due to weather, moon) THE LONGEST DAY 7,000 ships carried 100,000 soldiers 23,000 paratroopers dropped behind enemy lines 5 beaches – Omaha, Gold, Utah, Sword, Juno Omaha was the toughest to attack – biggest casualties 45,000 Allied soldiers will die taking Normandy

38 Days after D-Day The invasion succeeded, but huge amounts of people/equipment needed to be moved across the channel 5 days 326,547 soldiers 54,186 vehicles 104 tons of supplies 25 days 850,000 soldiers 148,000 vehicles 570, 000 tons of supplies

39 3rd Reich Collapses Allies retake Paris, head for Germany
BATTLE OF THE BULGE Hitler decides to make one last try at breaking the Allies (12/16/44) 3 days later, Patton hit German forces hard By Christmas eve, German forces out of fuel, food, forced to halt Jan 8, 1945, Nazis begin to withdraw to Germany THE WAR ENDS IN EUROPE Race between Allies/Russia to get to Berlin April 17, 1945, Russians reach Berlin first – Hitler commits suicide in his bunker rather than be taken prisoner by the Russians May 8, 1945 – V-E Day – Germany officially surrenders


41 Japan is Defeated IWO JIMA – Island close to Japan would give US perfect base to invade main island US pounded island with artillery for days 60,000 marines landed (6,800 died) and took Iwo Jima FIREBOMBING TOKYO Napalm used to start fires – controversial – civilian losses Japan’s six key industrial cities had been bombed OKINAWA Few signs the Japanese would surrender US needed a base close to Japan to store goods if they were to invade the main island Japanese were dug in – 12,000 will die taking Okinawa

42 Terms of Surrender Japanese emperor urged his government to negotiate
America demanded unconditional surrender Japanese had one condition – Emperor Hirohito would remain on the throne of Japan US had options: Blockade Invade Accept conditional surrender Use the secret weapon that was just about ready to deploy

43 Manhattan Project Albert Einstein convinced to write a letter to FDR telling him Germany was working on an atomic weapon FDR’s response was to set up the MANHATTAN PROJECT Best scientific minds were set on developing an atomic weapon Secret program was created at several locations On July 16, 1945 – the first atomic bomb was tested Scientists were horrified at the power of the weapon Wrote a letter to FDR begging him not to use the weapon on civilians FDR believe the bomb was a military weapon and never had any doubts that it should be used”

44 Nagasaki and Hirshima 2 cities selected – had been left alone during war (religious cites) Warnings given to the Japanese government August 6, 1945 – Hiroshima bombed 63% of city destroyed Between 80,000 and 120,000 died instantly August 9, 1945 – Nagasaki bombed Between 35,000 and 74,000 died instantly Faced with utter destruction and the threat of Soviet intervention, Hirohito ordered Japan to surrender August 15, 1945 – VJ Day – the long war was over

45 Putting the Enemy on Trial
US, GB, France and USSR created the International Military Tribunal (IMT) to punish German and Japanese leaders for “war crimes” Germany – 153 tried 3 acqutted, 7 got LONG prison terms, 12 sentenced to die and 107 sentenced to prison Japan – 25 tried 18 sentenced to prison, 7 sentenced to die Israel and other organizations have continued to hunt for Nazi’s who escaped after the war Those found, positively identified have been extradited back to Israel for trial


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