Presentation on theme: "Imperialism Africa The Scramble for Africa. What is imperialism? A foreign country is colonized (ex: the British move into South Africa, but remain under."— Presentation transcript:
Imperialism Africa The Scramble for Africa
What is imperialism? A foreign country is colonized (ex: the British move into South Africa, but remain under the control of Great Britain) There is a conquest (war/fighting/the taking away of rights) The resources of that place are taken (ex: people, diamonds, oil, etc.) They then make money from these items in their homeland
The Scramble for Africa The focus of most of Europe’s imperialist activities in the 19 th century was Africa. The demand for resources, markets, and the prestige of having colonies drove imperialist Europe to Africa.
The Scramble for Africa Up until the 1880’s only the coastlines of Africa had been colonized, exploited or even explored Gold, ivory and slaves had been taken from these colonies The slave trade ended in the in the 1800’s but European powers now had control of most of the African coast
Reasons for Imperialism After the 1880’s Europeans had technological superiority due to the Industrial Revolution ◦ Europeans fought with machine guns/Africans had spears and bows. ◦ Better maps ◦ Easier travel with the steam ship and railroads. Made travel on water or land faster and allowed for close contract with colonies. ◦ Medical treatment of malaria with the drug quinine.
Reasons for Imperialism African nations lacked unity ◦ No common language ◦ Lack of common culture ◦ Wars between different groups ◦ Lack of technology
The Scramble for Africa King Leopold of Belgium ◦ In the 1870’s Leopold establishes a trade in the Congo River basin. ◦ Leopold forced Africans to work on rubber plantations ◦ Harsh taxation and forced labor leads the world to call for humanitarian changes in the Congo.
The Berlin Conference Rules for the Colonization of Africa ◦ In 1884 European powers trying to colonize Africa were coming into conflict. ◦ To avoid further conflict 14 European powers set up rules for colonizing Africa. ◦ No members of the African community were present.
The Berlin Conference The agreement between the European powers specified ◦ European powers could acquire colonies in the following methods. Through occupation. Notifying other European states of the occupation and claim. Showing that the European power could control the area.
The Berlin Conference Results of the Conference ◦ In 1850 most of Africa had been free. ◦ By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia were free of European control.
Result of Colonization Europeans did not find a new market for goods in Africa ◦ Africans had little currency to buy goods. Instead Europeans found that Africa had a great deal of wealth and raw materials to supply the European nations
Result of Colonization Raw Materials ◦ Europeans developed cash-crop plantations Peanuts Palm oil Cocoa Rubber ◦ These plantations displaced food crops Africans needed to feed their families. Wealth ◦ Africa contain rich mineral resources The Belgian Congo Tin Copper South Africa Gold Diamonds
Impact of Imperialism in Africa Positives ◦ Reduced local warfare ◦ Brought hospitals and schools to Africa. ◦ Increased life spans and literacy rates. ◦ Gained railroads, dams, and telephone lines Negatives ◦ Africans lost their land ◦ Lost of independence ◦ Large amounts of the African population died of European diseases. Smallpox ◦ Loss of traditional culture ◦ Division of African nations by European boundaries ◦ Forced labor ◦ Displaced resources