Presentation on theme: " With the end of the slave trade in Africa…how do you think the relationship between Europe and Africa would change?"— Presentation transcript:
With the end of the slave trade in Africa…how do you think the relationship between Europe and Africa would change?
Industrialization fueled the need for resources European nations competed for new markets Many nations looked to Africa for raw materials and as a market for industrial goods European nations viewed an empire as a measure of greatness
Hundreds of ethnic groups More than 1000 languages Traditional beliefs, Christianity, and Islam Small villages and large empires African armies kept Europeans on the coast European travel to the interior of Africa was difficult – terrain, climate, disease Europeans that did go inland were mostly missionaries and humanitarians
Late 1860s – Scottish missionary David Livingstone traveled with a group of Africans into Central Africa to promote Christianity Several years passed, people thought he died American journalist Henry Stanley found him in 1871, with the famous greeting above Stanley’s exploration and reporting sparked interest of the Belgium King Leopold II Stanley was hired to sign treaties with local chiefs along the Congo River valley, giving Belgium control of the land
King Leopold claimed he was in the Congo to end the slave trade and promote Christianity Reality: brutally exploited Africans to gain personal wealth 10 million Congolese died due the abuses inflicted during Leopold’s rule Belgium’s African claims sparked other European nations to venture inland Africa
In 1884, fourteen European nations met to create rules for the division of Africa ◦ Any European country could claim land in Africa ◦ There were no African rulers in attendance Led to the “Scramble for Africa” By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia were not claimed by Europe
You will each represent an European nation that is intent on colonizing Africa. Think about the following: What are your motivations? What is your rationale for taking over? What are the rules of the game?
Recap and Reflection Look at the maps and see what regions of Africa your nation actually claimed Look at the traditional ethnic boundaries of Africa – did you think about these?
WHY? Motivations? Rationale? HOW? Factors that allowed Europeans to take over
Desire for raw materials and minerals ◦ Gold, diamonds, copper, tin ◦ Cash crops: peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, rubber Feelings of European superiority ◦ National pride – empire showed strength ◦ Racism – a reflection of Social Darwinism ◦ Europeans had the moral right and duty to civilize
Technological & Scientific Superiority ◦ Automatic machine gun ◦ Steam engine travel and communication ◦ Developed drug quinine to protect from malaria Size and diversity of Africa ◦ Variety of languages and cultures – little unity ◦ Wars and rivalries already existed
“I contend that we are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race…It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honorable race the world possesses.” - Cecil Rhodes, England
What do you think were the lasting impacts of the division of Africa by Western European powers?