Presentation on theme: "- King Leopold II of Belgium"— Presentation transcript:
1- King Leopold II of Belgium “I do not want to miss a good chance of getting us a slice of this magnificent African cake.”- King Leopold II of Belgium
2Thoughts to consider…Why do you think that there was such a demand for African land?Which nations do you think were most fought over among the European powers?Does this act of imperialism relate to any other acts in world history?
4Defining Key Concepts… IMPERIALISM: the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependenciesCOLONIZATION: the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people (to settle an area and take control)
5Africa in the 1800’sContinent made up of hundreds of ethnic groups and languagesSlave tradeEuropean trading posts only along coastsEmissaries sent to investigate
8Europeans Colonize Africa Why Africa?!Natural resources & raw materials (industrialization)To build empires (nationalism)NATIONALISM: Devotion to one's nation; love of your country & willingness to sacrifice anything for itSpread ChristianityRacism?Superiority v. InferiorityCivilized v. UncivilizedThree “G’s”: GOLD, GLORY, & GOD
9“The sun never sets on the British Empire…” European competition for colonies leads to establishing empires…
10Factors Enabling Colonization Inter-European power struggles and competition for preeminence (the fact of surpassing all others; superiority)Ethnic conflicts in AfricaNew advances in medicineMalaria vaccine, PenicillinIndustrializationNew technology among the EuropeansWeapons, Steamships, RailroadsSocial problems?
11Industrial Revolution INDUSTRIALIZATION: the development of a societyIt refers to the large-scale production process of machines and new technologies that allow a society to move forward.
12Industrial Revolution European countries needed natural resources & raw materials (rubber, metals, minerals)Africa had a plethora (overabundance) of natural resourcesNew markets for goods
13Everyone wants a piece of the magnificent African cake… “Scramble for Africa”: Prospects of exploiting African resources that resulted in nationalist rivalries between European empires for control of AfricaBerlin Conference: Meeting proposed by German chancellor Otto von Bismarck to devise ground rules with 14 European states for the colonization of Africa
14SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICAThe “scramble for Africa” took place between 1875 and 1900Geographical information compiled by explorers & adventurers held great interest for European imperialistsHenry Stanley of Belgium established a colony called Congo Free State, 18070’sTaking advantage of Egypt’s unrest, Britain occupied Egypt, 1882
15Berlin Conference 1884-1885 European leaders wanted to avoid war… Agree upon carving up African continent into coloniesDrawn up without African participationProvided the basis for the subsequent partition (break up), invasion, and colonization of Africa by various European powersEuropean armies sent to consolidate their claims & impose colonial rule
16Berlin ConferenceRESULT: a transformation of political & economic Africa, with virtually all parts of the continent colonized by 1900European colonies embraced all of Africa except Ethiopia & Liberia
19Debriefing… What areas did you get for your country? What areas did your country actually get?How fair was this for Europeans?How fair was this for Africans?
20Impacts & Effects of European Rule African people had little power in their governmentsEuropeans gained power in part by encouraging rivalries among ethnic groupsEuropeans took the best land to farmDrew political boundaries that divided ethnic groups & forced different groups to live together
21Ticket to Leave… Complete AFRICAN COLONIZATION TICKET-TO-LEAVE When finished, stick in period 7 bin!If time, you may begin your homework: Berlin Conference Diary Entry Assignment…