Presentation on theme: "SS7H1a: Explain how the European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries Scramble for Africa."— Presentation transcript:
SS7H1a: Explain how the European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries Scramble for Africa
Africa Faces Imperialism From the 1870s to 1900 Africa faced imperialist hostility, political pressure, military invasion and then conquest and colonization by Europe. By the early 1900s all of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia were colonized by European countries. Europe wanted African land for raw materials, and markets for their manufactured goods.
The One Who Has Territory, Has Power Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal and Spain were competing for power in Europe. The main way to gain political power is to have territories around the world.
Berlin Conference of 1884 The desire to have lands in Africa was so strong that there was a fear of war. German chancellor Otto von Bismark called the Berlin Conference of 1884 to set some ground rule in Africa.
Berlin Act 1.Slave trade was forbidden by land or sea. 2.Countries had to notify others when adding additional territories. 3.Congo Basin was free to trade on 4.Congo and Niger River would remain neutral and free for trade. 5.Countries could not have a colony in name only. 6.Free State of Congo would remain open to all European investments
Borders were drawn up to benefit the European powers and without participation of African leaders. This division was disastrous as the new boundary lines divided ethnic groups and in most cases forced rival ethnic groups to live together
IN 1878, MUCH OF AFRICA WAS NOT COLONIZED BY EUROPE …BUT BY 1885, OVER 90% OF AFRICA WOULD BE UNDER THE CONTROL OF EUROPEAN EMPIRES, PARTICULARLY THE BRITISH AND THE FRENCH
The Negatives of Colonialism Rival ethnic groups forced to live together causing conflicts and wars. Lost many resources without equal return. Lost their freedom to govern themselves. Africans were forced to work on plantations and in mines for very little money. Children as young as 10 are recruited for civil wars in Africa
Positives of Colonialism Improved roads and railroads Improved medical centers Improved schools Improved economies –jobs and technology Democracies allow freedom for many people (except in countries where corruption leads to dictatorships) Hospitals in South Africa are heavily burdened by HIV- infected children—a leading health issue in Africa.
Conflicts in Africa because of artificial political boundaries created by Europeans during the Berlin Conference of 1884- 85 Conflict between native Africans and Europeans during colonization Conflict between ethnic groups Conflict over who should have political power AFTER Africans gained independence from Europe