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Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. The Fungi Chapter 23. Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Outline Characteristics Structure Reproduction Evolution Sac Fungi Yeasts Club Fungi.

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Presentation on theme: "Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. The Fungi Chapter 23. Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Outline Characteristics Structure Reproduction Evolution Sac Fungi Yeasts Club Fungi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. The Fungi Chapter 23

2 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Outline Characteristics Structure Reproduction Evolution Sac Fungi Yeasts Club Fungi Smuts and Rusts Imperfect Fungi Symbiotic Relationships

3 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Characteristics of the Fungi Kingdom Fungi contains the fungi. – Mostly multicellular eukaryotes that share a common mode of nutrition.  Heterotrophic  Cells release digestive enzymes and then absorb resultant nutrient molecules.  Some are parasitic.  Several have mutualistic relationship.

4 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Structure of Fungi Yeasts are best known example of unicellular fungi. – Body (thallus) of most fungi is multicellular mycelium.  Network of hyphae give the mycelium a large surface area per unit volume.

5 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Mycelium of Fungi

6 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Structure of Fungi Fungal cells are quite different from plant cells. – Lack chloroplasts and have a cell wall containing chitin and not cellulose. – Energy reserve is glycogen, not starch. Nonmotile – Septate fungi have cross walls in their hyphae. – Nonseptate fungi are multinucleated.

7 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Reproduction of Fungi Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur. Fungal sexual reproduction involves three stages: – Haploid Hyphae – Dikaryotic Stage – Diploid Zygote

8 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Reproduction of Fungi During sexual reproduction, hyphae from two different mating types fuse. – Hyphae that contains paired haploid nuclei is said to be dikaryotic. – Fungal spores germinate directly into haploid hyphae without embryological development. Asexual reproduction usually involves the production of spores. – Unicellular yeasts reproduce by budding.

9 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Evolution of Fungi Has been suggested fungi evolved from red algae because both fungi and red algae lack flagella in all stages of the life cycle. – Zygospore Fungi  (phylum Zygomycota) are mainly saprotrophs living off animal and plant remains.  Produce spores with sporangia.  Name refers to the zygospore seen during sexual reproduction.

10 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Sac Fungi Most sac fungi (phylum Ascomycota) are saprotrophs that digest resistant materials containing cellulose, lignin, or collagen. – Most are composed of septate hyphae. – Ascus refers to the fingerlike sac that develops during sexual reproduction.  Asci usually surrounded and protected by sterile hyphae within an asocarp. – Asexual reproduction involves production of conidiospores.

11 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Yeasts Term yeasts is generally applied to unicellular fungi. – Many are ascomycetes. – Budding is common form of asexual reproduction. – Sexual reproduction results in the formation of asci and ascospores. – When some yeast ferment, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.

12 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Yeast Cells

13 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Club Fungi Club fungi (phylum Basidomycota) include mushrooms and bracket fungi. – These are fruiting bodies called basidiocarps.  Contain basidia, club-shaped structures that produce basidiospores. – Usually reproduce sexually.

14 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Club Fungi

15 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Smuts and Rusts Smuts and rusts are club fungi that parasitize cereal crops. – Great economic importance because of annual crop losses.  Do not form basidiocarps.  Life cycle often requires two different plant hosts to complete the cycle.

16 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Smuts and Rusts

17 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Imperfect Fungi Imperfect fungi (phylum Deuteromycota) always reproduce asexually by forming conidiospores. – Produced at tips of modified aerial hyphae. – Known as imperfect in the sense that a sexual stage has not yet been observed.  Penicillium - Penicillin  Aspergillus - Soy sauce  Candida albicans- Yeast infections

18 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Penicillium

19 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Symbiotic Relationships Lichens – Association between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or green alga.  Specialized fungal hyphae penetrate photosynthetic cells and transfer nutrients directly to the fungus.  Can live in areas of extreme conditions and contribute to soil formation.

20 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Lichen Morphology

21 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Mycorrhizas Mycorrhizas are mutualistic relationships between soil fungi and the roots of most plants. – Help plants acquire mineral nutrients.  Give plant greater absorptive surface.

22 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Review Characteristics Structure Reproduction Evolution Sac Fungi Yeasts Club Fungi Smuts and Rusts Imperfect Fungi Symbiotic Relationships

23 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.


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