3 Characteristics of the Fungi Kingdom Fungi contains the fungi.Mostly multicellular eukaryotes that share a common mode of nutrition.HeterotrophicCells release digestive enzymes and then absorb resultant nutrient molecules.Some are parasitic.Several have mutualistic relationship.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
4 Yeasts are best known example of unicellular fungi. Structure of FungiYeasts are best known example of unicellular fungi.Body (thallus) of most fungi is multicellular mycelium.Network of hyphae give the mycelium a large surface area per unit volume.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
6 Fungal cells are quite different from plant cells. Structure of FungiFungal cells are quite different from plant cells.Lack chloroplasts and have a cell wall containing chitin and not cellulose.Energy reserve is glycogen, not starch.NonmotileSeptate fungi have cross walls in their hyphae.Nonseptate fungi are multinucleated.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
7 Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur. Reproduction of FungiBoth sexual and asexual reproduction occur.Fungal sexual reproduction involves three stages:Haploid HyphaeDikaryotic StageDiploid ZygoteMader: Biology 8th Ed.
8 Hyphae that contains paired haploid nuclei is said to be dikaryotic. Reproduction of FungiDuring sexual reproduction, hyphae from two different mating types fuse.Hyphae that contains paired haploid nuclei is said to be dikaryotic.Fungal spores germinate directly into haploid hyphae without embryological development.Asexual reproduction usually involves the production of spores.Unicellular yeasts reproduce by budding.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
9 Produce spores with sporangia. Evolution of FungiHas been suggested fungi evolved from red algae because both fungi and red algae lack flagella in all stages of the life cycle.Zygospore Fungi(phylum Zygomycota) are mainly saprotrophs living off animal and plant remains.Produce spores with sporangia.Name refers to the zygospore seen during sexual reproduction.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
10 Most are composed of septate hyphae. Sac FungiMost sac fungi (phylum Ascomycota) are saprotrophs that digest resistant materials containing cellulose, lignin, or collagen.Most are composed of septate hyphae.Ascus refers to the fingerlike sac that develops during sexual reproduction.Asci usually surrounded and protected by sterile hyphae within an asocarp.Asexual reproduction involves production of conidiospores.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
11 Term yeasts is generally applied to unicellular fungi. Many are ascomycetes.Budding is common form of asexual reproduction.Sexual reproduction results in the formation of asci and ascospores.When some yeast ferment, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
13 Club fungi (phylum Basidomycota) include mushrooms and bracket fungi. These are fruiting bodies called basidiocarps.Contain basidia, club-shaped structures that produce basidiospores.Usually reproduce sexually.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
15 Smuts and rusts are club fungi that parasitize cereal crops. Great economic importance because of annual crop losses.Do not form basidiocarps.Life cycle often requires two different plant hosts to complete the cycle.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
17 Produced at tips of modified aerial hyphae. Imperfect FungiImperfect fungi (phylum Deuteromycota) always reproduce asexually by forming conidiospores.Produced at tips of modified aerial hyphae.Known as imperfect in the sense that a sexual stage has not yet been observed.Penicillium - PenicillinAspergillus - Soy sauceCandida albicans- Yeast infectionsMader: Biology 8th Ed.
19 Symbiotic Relationships LichensAssociation between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or green alga.Specialized fungal hyphae penetrate photosynthetic cells and transfer nutrients directly to the fungus.Can live in areas of extreme conditions and contribute to soil formation.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
21 Help plants acquire mineral nutrients. MycorrhizasMycorrhizas are mutualistic relationships between soil fungi and the roots of most plants.Help plants acquire mineral nutrients.Give plant greater absorptive surface.Mader: Biology 8th Ed.