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Mushrooms, mould, and mildew Fungi in action.  In partners or as a group – what characteristics define a fungus (pl)?  If you said:  Eukaryotic  Heterotrophic,

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Presentation on theme: "Mushrooms, mould, and mildew Fungi in action.  In partners or as a group – what characteristics define a fungus (pl)?  If you said:  Eukaryotic  Heterotrophic,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mushrooms, mould, and mildew Fungi in action

2  In partners or as a group – what characteristics define a fungus (pl)?  If you said:  Eukaryotic  Heterotrophic, but do not have an internal digestive system (have external digestion)  Non vascular (no root system)  Reproduce sexually and asexually You’d be right!

3  Plants  Have a root system  Autotrophs  Cell wall composed of cellulose  Fungi  Non-vascular system  Heterotophic  Cell wall is composed of chitin

4  Some fungi are single-celled  They are called yeasts  Valuable economically – can you think why?

5  Most fungi are multi-cellular  Body of a fungi generally occurs below ground  Body = mycelium = a branching, mesh-like network of hyphae

6  An individual filament is called a hypha (hyphae (pl))  One long continuous multicellular structure

7  So what is a ‘mushroom’?  It is the spore producing reproductive structure of a fungus, which is called the fruiting body  Made of hyphae that are densely packed together

8  Fungi release enzymes into their surrounding  Enzymes break down the food externally  Fungi then absorb the nutrients that have been released by the enzymes through its cell membrane  One way of classifying fungi is through the four different ways that they obtain nutrients

9 1.Parasitic  Fungi absorbs nutrients from the living cells of a host organism  Results in death of the host

10 2.Predatory  Soil fungi whose mycelia have specialized structures for trapping prey

11 3.Mutualistic  Fungi that have partnerships with other organisms (e.g. Plants, protists or animals)  Both organisms involved in the partnership benefit from the relationship

12 4.Saprobial  Fungi that feed on dead or decaying organic matter  i.e. They are decomposers  Very important in nutrient recycling

13  What is mycelium and where is it found?  When you see a mushroom growing from a dead log, which part of the fungus are you observing?

14  5 Major Phlya  Phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids)  Phlyum Zygomycota (zygomycetes)  Phylum Deuteromycota  Phylum Ascomycota (ascomycetes)  Phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes)  Based on differences in reproduction and the structure of the fruiting body they produce

15  Not known to reproduce sexually  Generally types of moulds  E.g. Penicillium mould; mould in blue cheese

16  Mostly unicellular  Aquatic species (marine or freshwater)  Spores have flagella (motile)  Parasitic or saprophytes

17  Multicellular and mostly terrestrial (soil)  Include familiar bread and fruit moulds  Generally reproduce asexually

18  Reproduce sexually in unfavourable conditions to produce zygospores  Diploid structure (2n) that develops after two haploid (n) hyphae of opposite types combine their nuclei. Thick wall develops around nuclei to protect it.

19  Largest fungi group  Develop small finger-like sacs called asci (contain spores) during sexual reproduction (similar to creation of zygospores)  Saprophyte and parasites  Includes yeasts, which reproduce by budding

20  Includes ‘mushrooms’, puffballs, and stinkhorns  Most are decomposers, some form symbiotic (mutualistic) relationship with plants  E.g. lichen

21  Fruiting bodies release spores called basidiospores from basidia (club-shaped hypha)

22  Asexual  Budding – a smaller cell develops while attached to a parent cell. Eventually, small cell is pinched off of parent cell to produce a new individual

23  Asexual  Fragmentation – a piece of mycelium breaks and forms a new individual  Spore production  Sexual reproduction - also involves spore production and often the creation of a fruiting body above ground  Fig3.21 (hand-out)

24  Fungi are:  Decomposers – one of the most important groups for recycling materials along with Bacteris  Form symbiotic relationships – esp. with plants. Without these relationships plant growth and productivity would be reduced  Food source (e.g. Blue cheese, mushrooms) and used in food production (bread, beer)

25  Fungi are:  Sources of antibiotics (medicine) (e.g. Penicillin). The discovery of antibiotics revolutionized health care worldwide.  Biocontrol – use fungi that target insects to control crop pests (e.g. Chinese caterpillar fungus; control of California potato beetles). This is cheaper and less damaging to the environment than using chemical pesticides

26  Fungi  Cause animal and plant disease (e.g. Every year 10 – 50% of world’s fruit harvest is destroyed by fungi!) (e.g. Athlete’s foot, ringworm)  Food spoilage (mould)

27 largest-organism-is-fungus Honey mushrooms – give an inkling of what is below.

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