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We are fun-guys!. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungi are diverse and widespread 100,000 described.

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Presentation on theme: "We are fun-guys!. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungi are diverse and widespread 100,000 described."— Presentation transcript:

1 We are fun-guys!

2 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungi are diverse and widespread 100,000 described species Really as many as 1.5 MILLION? Honey mushroom years old, 1,800 football fields (underground) or a yeast cell Essential in ecosystem nutrient recycling Mycology There’s fungus among us!

3 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings There’s fungus among us!

4 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption Despite their diversity, fungi share key traits, most importantly the way in which they derive nutrition

5 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Nutrition and Ecology Fungi are heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body Fungi use enzymes to break down a large variety of complex molecules into smaller organic compounds The versatility of these enzymes contributes to fungi’s ecological success

6 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles: – Decomposers – Parasites – Mutualists

7 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Body Structure The most common body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts) Some species grow as either filaments or yeasts; others grow as both Animation: Fungal Reproduction and Nutrition Animation: Fungal Reproduction and Nutrition

8 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungal Morphology The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients Fungi consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption Most fungi have cell walls made of chitin

9 Fig Reproductive structure Spore-producing structures Hyphae Mycelium 20 µm

10 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host

11 Fig (b) Haustoria (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Nematode Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell plasma membrane Plant cell Fungal hypha Hyphae 25 µm ascomycete

12 Fig. 31-4a (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Nematode Hyphae 25 µm Lasso sequence at 3 minutes

13 Morgellons Disease?

14 Fig. 31-4b (b) Haustoria Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell plasma membrane Plant cell Fungal hypha

15 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Mycorrhizae are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots Two types:

16 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Mycorrhizae are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane

17 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually Fungi have different types of life cycles

18 Fig Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid (n) Diploid (2n)

19 Fig Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage Zygote

20 Fig Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage Zygote Spores GERMINATION MEIOSIS

21 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Sexual Reproduction Fungal nuclei are normally haploid, with the exception of transient diploid stages formed during the sexual life cycles Sexual reproduction requires the fusion of hyphae from different mating types (“sexes”) Fungi use sexual signaling molecules called pheromones to communicate their mating type (like many animals including primates!)

22 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Plasmogamy is the union of two parent mycelia In most fungi, the haploid nuclei from each parent do not fuse right away; they coexist in the mycelium, called a heterokaryon The different nuclei may even swap DNA similar to “crossing over”.

23 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Hours, days, or even centuries may pass before the occurrence of karyogamy, nuclear fusion (kary = nucleus) During karyogamy, the haploid nuclei fuse, producing diploid cells The diploid phase is short and undergoes meiosis (halving!), producing haploid spores

24 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Asexual Reproduction In addition to sexual reproduction, many fungi can reproduce asexually Molds produce haploid spores by mitosis and form visible mycelia

25 Fig µm

26 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Other fungi that can reproduce asexually are yeasts, which inhabit moist environments Instead of producing spores, yeasts reproduce asexually by simple cell division and the pinching of “bud cells” from a parent cell

27 Fig µm Parent cell Bud Sacchromyces cervisiae

28 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual stage

29 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist Fungi and animals are more closely related to each other than they are to plants or other eukaryotes

30 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Origin of Fungi Fungi, animals, and their protistan relatives form the opisthokonts clade

31 Fig Animals (and their close protistan relatives) Other fungi Nucleariids Chytrids UNICELLULAR, FLAGELLATED ANCESTOR Fungi Opisthokonts

32 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The oldest undisputed fossils of fungi are only about 460 million years old

33 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Move to Land Fungi were among the earliest colonizers of land and probably formed mutualistic relationships with early land plants

34 Fig Chytrids (1,000 species) Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm Glomeromycetes (160 species) Fungal hypha Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)

35 Fig a Chytrids (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm

36 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Chytrids Chytrids (phylum Chytridiomycota) are found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats They can be decomposers, parasites, or mutualists Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that chytrids diverged early in fungal evolution Chytrids are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores, called zoospores Video: Allomyces Zoospore Release Video: Allomyces Zoospore Release Video: Phlyctochytrium Zoospore Release Video: Phlyctochytrium Zoospore Release

37 Fig. 31-UN1 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes

38 Fig Flagellum 4 µm

39 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Until recently, systematists thought that fungi lost flagella only once in their evolutionary history Molecular data indicate that some “chytrids” are actually more closely related to another fungal group, the zygomycetes; chytrids are a paraphyletic group

40 Fig b Zygomycetes (1,000 species)

41 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Zygomycetes The zygomycetes (phylum Zygomycota) exhibit great diversity of life histories They include fast-growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts The zygomycetes are named for their sexually produced zygosporangia Zygosporangia, which are resistant to freezing and drying, can survive unfavorable conditions

42 Fig. 31-UN2 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes

43 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The life cycle of black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer) is fairly typical of the phylum

44 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Some zygomycetes, such as Pilobolus, can actually “aim” their sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources Toward light = grass = cows = dispersal! 25m/sec = 1,million times its length/sec. Fastest aerial acceleration in nature

45 Fig mm Fungus Cannon!

46 Fig c Glomeromycetes (160 species) Fungal hypha

47 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Glomeromycetes The glomeromycetes (phylum Glomeromycota) were once considered zygomycetes They are now classified in a separate clade Glomeromycetes form arbuscular mycorrhizae

48 Fig. 31-UN3 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes

49 Fig µm Branched hyphae inside root cell (cleared)

50 Fig d Ascomycetes (65,000 species)

51 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ascomycetes Ascomycetes (phylum Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats

52 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ascomycetes Ascomycetes (phylum Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats The phylum is defined by production of sexual spores in saclike asci, usually contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps

53 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ascomycetes Ascomycetes (phylum Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats The phylum is defined by production of sexual spores in saclike asci, usually contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps Ascomycetes are commonly called sac fungi Ascomycetes vary in size and complexity from unicellular yeasts to elaborate cup fungi and morels

54 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ascomycetes include plant pathogens, decomposers, and symbionts Ascomycetes reproduce asexually by enormous numbers of asexual spores called conidia

55 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ascomycetes include plant pathogens, decomposers, and symbionts Ascomycetes reproduce asexually by enormous numbers of asexual spores called conidia Conidia are not formed inside sporangia; they are produced asexually at the tips of specialized hyphae called conidiophores

56 Fig. 31-UN4 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes

57 Tuber melanosporum, a truffle Morchella esculenta, the tasty morel Ascomycetes: The Good the Bad and the Ugly Part I: The Good

58 Fig a Morchella esculenta, the tasty morel

59 Fig b Tuber melanosporum, a truffle ca. $600/lb The Associate Press reported that a real estate investor and his wife from Hong Kong have paid €125,000 ($160,406 USD) for a gigantic Italian White Alba truffle which is reportedly the world’s most expensive ever. The most expensive truffle weighs in 1.51 kilograms (3.3 lbs).

60 Fig Staphylococcus Zone of inhibited growth Penicillium Alexander Fleming’s “moldy plate” (1928)

61 Fig µm Parent cell Bud Sacchromyces cervisiae

62 A seal around 4,000 years old is a Sumerian "Hymn to Ninkasi", the goddess of brewing. This "hymn" is also a recipe for making beer. 6,000 years old Starter = old dough

63 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ascomycetes Part II: The Bad Mycoses - Ringworm, indoor molds (sick buildings), athelete’s foot, Candida (diaper rash and worse) Candida albicans Fusarium (grains; Jurgenson research) Cryptococcus (pigeon poop) Ergot!

64 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) Parasitic on grains of grasses: (rye, barley, wheat)

65 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) sclerotia Parasitic on grains of grasses: (rye, barley, wheat) infects flowers and replaces mature grain with sclerotia

66 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) sclerotia Parasitic on grains of grasses: (rye, barley, wheat) infects flowers and replaces mature grain with sclerotia hard sclerotia allow the fungus to survive freezing and desiccation

67 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) sclerotia Parasitic on grains of grasses: (rye, barley, wheat) infects flowers and replaces mature grain with sclerotia hard sclerotia allow the fungus to survive freezing and desiccation “argot” = spur

68 Alkaloids produced by Claviceps purpurea: Ergotamine - vasoconstrictor

69 Alkaloids produced by Claviceps purpurea: Ergotamine - vasoconstrictor Ergonovine - spontaneous abortions

70 Alkaloids produced by Claviceps purpurea: Ergotamine - vasoconstrictor Ergonovine - spontaneous abortions Ergine - gastrointestinal toxin, seizures, formication

71 Alkaloids produced by Claviceps purpurea: Ergotamine - vasoconstrictor Ergonovine - spontaneous abortions Ergine - gastrointestinal toxin, seizures, formication Lysergic Acid Hydroxyethylamide - hallucinations

72 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) “Holy Fire” (Ignis Sacer)

73 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) “Holy Fire” (Ignis Sacer) ,000 died in France

74 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) “Holy Fire” (Ignis Sacer) ,000 died in France “St. Anthony’s Fire”

75 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) “Holy Fire” (Ignis Sacer) ,000 died in France “St. Anthony’s Fire” Salem Witch Trials

76 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) “Holy Fire” (Ignis Sacer) ,000 died in France “St. Anthony’s Fire” Salem Witch Trials in Sologne, France

77 Ascomycota: Claviceps (“ergot”) “Holy Fire” (Ignis Sacer) ,000 died in France “St. Anthony’s Fire” Salem Witch Trials in Sologne, France Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25: Albert Hofmann)

78 “Holy Fire” (Ignis Sacer) ,000 died in France “St. Anthony’s Fire” Salem Witch Trials in Sologne, France Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25: Albert Hofmann) Pont-St. Esprit, France

79

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81 25 µm Ascomycetes Part II: The Ugly Cordyceps Bullet ants in trouble fly moth

82

83 Geomyces destructans White nose Syndrome Causes early arousal? Up to 97% mortality Now in Missouri

84 colony conidia Conidiophores w/ conidia

85 Fig e Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)

86 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Basidiomycetes Basidomycetes (phylum Basidiomycota) include mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi, mutualists, and plant parasites The phylum is defined by a clublike structure called a basidium, a transient diploid stage in the life cycle The basidiomycetes are also called club fungi

87 Fig. 31-UN5 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes

88 Fig Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood Maiden veil fungus (Dictyphora), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat Puffballs emitting spores

89 Fig a Maiden veil fungus (Dictyphora), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat Fly dispersed (eat slime pass spores)

90 Fig b Puffballs emitting spores 70 trillion!

91 Fig c Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood

92 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The life cycle of a basidiomycete usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium In response to environmental stimuli, the mycelium reproduces sexually by producing elaborate fruiting bodies call basidiocarps Mushrooms are examples of basidiocarps The numerous basidia in a basidiocarp are sources of sexual spores called basidiospores

93 Fig SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n +n) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–)

94 Fig SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n +n) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia (n+n) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp (n+n)

95 Fig SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n +n) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia (n+n) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp (n+n) KARYOGAMY Diploid nuclei

96 Basidium Fig SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n +n) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia (n+n) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp (n+n) KARYOGAMY Diploid nuclei MEIOSIS Basidium containing four haploid nuclei Dispersal and germination Basidiospores (n) Basidium with four basidiospores Basidiospore 1 µm Haploid mycelia

97 Fig

98 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 31.5: Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human welfare Fungi interact with other organisms in many ways

99 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungi as Decomposers Fungi are efficient decomposers They perform essential recycling of chemical elements between the living and nonliving world

100 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungi as Mutualists Fungi form mutualistic relationships with plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and animals All of these relationships have profound ecological effects

101 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungus-Plant Mutualisms Mycorrhizae are enormously important in natural ecosystems and agriculture Plants harbor harmless symbiotic endophytes that live inside leaves or other plant parts Endophytes make toxins that deter herbivores and defend against pathogens

102 Fig Both endophyte and pathogen present (E+P+) Endophyte not present; pathogen present (E – P+) Leaf area damaged (%) Leaf mortality (%) E+P+ E–P+ E+P+ RESULTS

103 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungus-Animal Symbioses Some fungi share their digestive services with animals These fungi help break down plant material in the guts of cows and other grazing mammals Many species of ants and termites use the digestive power of fungi by raising them in “farms”

104 Fig

105

106 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Lichens A lichen is a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae

107 Fig A foliose (leaflike) lichen A fruticose (shrublike) lichen Crustose (encrusting) lichens

108 Fig a A fruticose (shrublike) lichen

109 Fig b Crustose (encrusting) lichens

110 Fig c A foliose (leaflike) lichen

111 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The fungal component of a lichen is most often an ascomycete Algae or cyanobacteria occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface

112 Fig Algal cell Ascocarp of fungus Soredia Fungal hyphae Fungal hyphae Algal layer 20 µm

113 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The algae provide carbon compounds, cyanobacteria provide organic nitrogen, and fungi provide the environment for growth The fungi of lichens can reproduce sexually and asexually Asexual reproduction is by fragmentation or the formation of soredia, small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae

114 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Lichens are important pioneers on new rock and soil surfaces Lichens are sensitive to pollution, and their death can be a warning that air quality is deteriorating

115 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fungi as Pathogens About 30% of known fungal species are parasites or pathogens, mostly on or in plants Some fungi that attack food crops are toxic to humans Animals are much less susceptible to parasitic fungi than are plants The general term for a fungal infection in animals is mycosis

116 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Practical Uses of Fungi Humans eat many fungi and use others to make cheeses, alcoholic beverages, and bread Some fungi are used to produce antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections, for example the ascomycete Penicillium Genetic research on fungi is leading to applications in biotechnology – For example, insulin-like growth factor can be produced in the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

117 Fig. 31-UN6

118 Fig. 31-UN6a

119 Fig. 31-UN6b

120 Fig. 31-UN6c

121 Fig. 31-UN6d

122 Fig. 31-UN6e


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