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Chapter 31 Fungi.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 31 Fungi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 31 Fungi

2 Overview: Mighty Mushrooms
Fungi are diverse and widespread They are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients


4 Concept 31.1: Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption
Despite their diversity, fungi share key traits, most importantly the way in which they derive nutrition

5 Nutrition and Fungal Lifestyles
Fungi are heterotrophs but do not ingest their food They secrete exoenzymes that break down complex molecules, and then they absorb the smaller compounds

6 Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles:
Decomposers Parasites Mutualistic symbionts

7 Animation: Fungal Reproduction and Nutrition
Body Structure The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients Fungi consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption Most fungi have cell walls made of chitin Animation: Fungal Reproduction and Nutrition

8 LE 31-2 Reproductive structure Hyphae Spore-producing structures 20 µm Mycelium

9 Some fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa, with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement
Coenocytic fungi lack septa

10 Cell wall Cell wall Nuclei Pore Septum Nuclei Septate hypha
Coenocytic hypha

11 Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae that allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host

12 LE 31-4 Hyphae 25 µm Nematode Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Plant cell wall Fungal hypha Plant cell Plant cell plasma membrane Haustorium Haustoria

13 Mycorrhizae are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots
Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex Endomycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane

14 Concept 31.2: Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles
Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually

15 LE 31-5–3 Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic stage Heterokaryotic
(unfused nuclei from different parents) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Diploid (2n) KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) Spore-producing structures Zygote SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium MEIOSIS GERMINATION GERMINATION Spore-producing structures Spores

16 Sexual Reproduction Plasomogamy is the union of two parent mycelia
In many fungi, the haploid nuclei from each parent do not fuse right away; they coexist in the mycelium, called a heterokaryon In some fungi, the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell; such a mycelium is said to be dikaryotic

17 Hours, days, or even centuries may pass before the occurrence of karyogamy, nuclear fusion
During karyogamy, the haploid nuclei fuse, producing diploid cells The diploid phase is short-lived and undergoes meiosis, producing haploid spores

18 Asexual Reproduction In addition to sexual reproduction, many fungi can reproduce asexually Many of these species grow as mold, sometimes on fruit, bread, and other foods

19 LE 31-6 2.5 µm

20 Other fungi that can reproduce asexually are yeasts, which inhabit moist environments
Instead of producing spores, yeasts reproduce asexually by simple cell division

21 LE 31-7 10 m Parent cell Bud

22 Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual stage
Mycologists have traditionally called these deuteromycetes, or imperfect fungi

23 Concept 31.3: Fungi descended from an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist
Systematists now recognize Fungi and Animalia as sister kingdoms In other words, fungi and animals are more closely related to each other than they are to plants or other eukaryotes

24 The Origin of Fungi Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that fungi and animals diverged from a common unicellular, flagellated ancestor Fungi probably evolved before the colonization of land by multicellular organisms The oldest undisputed fossils of fungi are only about 460 million years old

25 LE 31-8 50 µm

26 The Move to Land Fungi were among the earliest colonizers of land, probably as symbionts with early land plants

27 Concept 31.4: Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages
Fungi phylogeny is the subject of much research Molecular analysis has helped clarify evolutionary relationships between fungal groups, although areas of uncertainty remain

28 LE 31-9 Zygote fungi Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Sac fungi Club fungi
Chytrids Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota

29 Chytrids Chytrids (phylum Chytridiomycota) are found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats They can be saprobic or parasitic Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that chytrids diverged earliest in fungal evolution Chytrids are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores, called zoospores

30 LE 31-10 25 µm Hyphae Flagellum 4 µm

31 Video: Allomyces Zoospore Release
Video: Phlyctochytrium Zoospore Release

32 Until recently, systematists thought that fungi lost flagella only once in their evolutionary history Molecular data indicate that some “chytrids” are actually more closely related to another fungal group, the zygomycetes

33 Zygomycetes and other chytrids
LE 31-11 Glomeromycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes Zygomycetes and other chytrids Some chytrids Key Common ancestor Loss of flagella

34 Zygomycetes The zygomycetes (phylum Zygomycota) exhibit great diversity of life histories They include fast-growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts The zygomycetes are named for their sexually produced zygosporangia The life cycle of black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer) is fairly typical of the phylum

35 LE 31-12 Key PLASMOGAMY Rhizopus growing on bread Mating type (+)
Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY Rhizopus growing on bread Mating type (+) Gametangia with haploid nuclei Mating type (–) 100 µm Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination Zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Sporangia KARYOGAMY Diploid nuclei Sporangium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION MEIOSIS Dispersal and germination Mycelium 50 µm

36 Zygosporangia, which are resistant to freezing and drying, can survive unfavorable conditions
Some zygomycetes, such as Pilobolus, can actually “aim” their sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources

37 LE 31-13 0.5 mm

38 Microsporidia Microsporidia are unicellular parasites of animals and protists They are now classified as zygomycetes

39 LE 31-14 10 µm Host cell nucleus Developing microsporidian Spore

40 Glomeromycetes The glomeromycetes (phylum Glomeromycota) were once considered zygomycetes They are now classified in a separate clade Glomeromycetes form a distinct type of endomycorrhizae called arbuscular mycorrhizae

41 LE 31-15 2.5 µm

42 Ascomycetes Ascomycetes (phylum Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats The phylum is defined by production of sexual spores in saclike asci, usually contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps Ascomycetes vary in size and complexity, from unicellular yeasts to elaborate cup fungi and morels

43 LE 31-16 The cup-shaped ascocarps (fruiting bodies) of Aleuria aurantia give this species its common name: orange peel fungus. The edible ascocarp of Morchella esculenta, the succulent morel is often found under trees in orchards. 10 µm Tuber melanosporum is a truffle, an ascocarp that grows underground and emits strong odors. These ascocarps have been dug up and the middle one sliced open. Neurospora crassa feeds as a mold on bread and other food (SEM).

44 Ascomycetes reproduce asexually by enormous numbers of asexual spores called conidia
Conidia are not formed inside sporangia; they are produced asexually at the tips of specialized hyphae called conidiophores

45 LE 31-17 Key Conidia; Haploid (n) mating type (–) Dikaryotic (n + n)
Diploid (2n) Dispersal Germination Mating type (+) ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium PLASMOGAMY Ascus (dikaryotic) Mycelia Conidiophore Dikaryotic hyphae extended from ascogonium SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination KARYOGAMY Dispersal Diploid nucleus (zygote) Asci Eight ascospores Four haploid nuclei MEIOSIS Ascocarp

46 Basidiomycetes Basidomycetes (phylum Basidiomycota) include mushrooms and shelf fungi The phylum is defined by a clublike structure called a basidium, a transient diploid stage in the life cycle

47 LE 31-18 Maiden veil fungus (Dictyphora), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat Fly agaric (Amanita muscoria), a common species in conifer forests in the northern hemisphere Puffballs emitting spores Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood

48 The life cycle of a basidiomycete usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium
In response to environmental stimuli, the mycelium reproduces sexually by producing elaborate fruiting bodies call basidiocarps Mushrooms are examples of basidiocarps


50 The numerous basidia in a basidiocarp are sources of sexual spores called basidiospores
Asexual reproduction is much less common in basidiomycetes than in ascomycetes

51 LE 31-20 Dikaryotic PLASMOGAMY mycelium Mating type (–) Mating
Haploid mycelia Gills lined with basidia SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Basidiocarp (dikaryotic) Dispersal and germination Basidiospores Basidium with four appendages Basidia (dikaryotic) Basidium Basidium containing four haploid nuclei KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS Key Diploid nuclei Haploid (n) 1 µm Basidiospore Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n)

52 Concept 31.5: Fungi have a powerful impact on ecosystems and human welfare

53 Decomposers Fungi are efficient decomposers
They perform essential recycling of chemical elements between the living and nonliving world

54 Symbionts Fungi form symbiotic relationships with plants, algae, and animals All of these relationships have profound ecological effects

55 Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae are enormously important in natural ecosystems and agriculture They increase plant productivity RESULTS RESULTS


57 Fungus-Animal Symbiosis
Some fungi share their digestive services with animals These fungi help break down plant material in the guts of cows and other grazing mammals Many species of ants and termites use the digestive power of fungi by raising them in “farms”


59 Lichens Lichens are a symbiotic association of millions of photosynthetic microorganisms held in a mass of fungal hyphae

60 LE 31-23 A fruticose (shrub-like) lichen A foliose (leaf-like) lichen
Crustose (crust-like) lichens

61 The fungal component of a lichen is most often an ascomycete
Algae or cyanobacteria occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface

62 LE 31-24 Ascocarp of fungus Soredia Fungal hyphae Algal layer
Algal cell Fungal hyphae 10 µm

63 Pathogens About 30% of known fungal species are parasites, mostly on or in plants Animals are much less susceptible to parasitic fungi than are plants The general term for a fungal infection in animals is mycosis

64 LE 31-25 Corn smut on corn Tar spot fungus of sycamore leaves
Ergots on rye

65 Practical Uses of Fungi
Humans eat many fungi and use others to make cheeses, alcoholic beverages, and bread Genetic research on fungi is leading to applications in biotechnology Antibiotics produced by fungi treat bacterial infections

66 LE 31-26 Staphylococcus Penicillium Zone of inhibited growth


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