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Fig. 31-1. Fig. 31-3 (b) Coenocytic hypha Septum (a) Septate hypha Pore Nuclei Cell wall.

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Presentation on theme: "Fig. 31-1. Fig. 31-3 (b) Coenocytic hypha Septum (a) Septate hypha Pore Nuclei Cell wall."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fig. 31-1

2 Fig (b) Coenocytic hypha Septum (a) Septate hypha Pore Nuclei Cell wall

3 Fig Reproductive structure Spore-producing structures Hyphae Mycelium 20 µm

4 Fig (b) Haustoria (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Nematode Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell plasma membrane Plant cell Fungal hypha Hyphae 25 µm

5 Basidium Fig SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n +n) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia (n+n) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp (n+n) KARYOGAMY Diploid nuclei MEIOSIS Basidium containing four haploid nuclei Dispersal and germination Basidiospores (n) Basidium with four basidiospores Basidiospore 1 µm Haploid mycelia

6 Fig Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood Maiden veil fungus (Dictyphora), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat Puffballs emitting spores

7 Fig Chytrids (1,000 species) Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm Glomeromycetes (160 species) Fungal hypha Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)

8 Fig a Chytrids (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm

9 Fig Flagellum 4 µm

10 Fig Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid nuclei Mating type (–) Mating type (+) Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n + n) PLASMOGAMY Key Diploid nuclei Zygosporangium 100 µm KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS Sporangium Spores Dispersal and germination ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination Sporangia Mycelium 50 µm

11 Fig mm

12 Fig µm

13 Fig Tuber melanosporum, a truffle Morchella esculenta, the tasty morel

14 Fig Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination Hypha PLASMOGAMY Haploid spores (conidia) Conidia; mating type (–) Mating type (+) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dikaryotic hyphae Ascus (dikaryotic) Mycelia KARYOGAMY Diploid nucleus (zygote) Germination Asci Dispersal Ascocarp Eight ascospores Four haploid nuclei MEIOSIS

15 Fig

16 Fig µm

17 Fig Staphylococcus Zone of inhibited growth Penicillium

18 Fig µm Parent cell Bud

19 Fig A foliose (leaflike) lichen A fruticose (shrublike) lichen Crustose (encrusting) lichens

20 Fig Algal cell Ascocarp of fungus Soredia Fungal hyphae Fungal hyphae Algal layer 20 µm

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