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Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera Kingdom Fungi About 100,000 species Uses: medicine food Ecological value: major decomposers symbiotic relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera Kingdom Fungi About 100,000 species Uses: medicine food Ecological value: major decomposers symbiotic relationships."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera

3 Kingdom Fungi About 100,000 species Uses: medicine food Ecological value: major decomposers symbiotic relationships (N 2 fixers) Problems: some strains are deadly athletes foot destroy library books destroy crops

4 About 30% of the 100,000 known species of fungi are parasites, mostly on or in plants. –American elms: Dutch Elm Disease Some fungi are pathogens Was once one of America's most dominant trees –American chestnut: chestnut blight

5 Other fungi, such as rusts and ergots, infect grain crops, causing tremendous economic losses each year. Some fungi are pathogens

6 Curse of the Mummy Some fungi are pathogens

7 Athletes Foot Some fungi are persistant

8 Fungi as Decomposers

9 Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic, absorptive Mostly multicellular (except few, e.g. yeast) Heterotrophic (decomposers & parasitic) Mycelium (body of hyphae)

10 Kingdom Fungi Firm cell walls (generally of “chitin”) “Spores” as reproductive bodies Unique chromosomes and nuclei Includes molds, yeasts, rusts, and mushrooms

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12 hyphae - the vegetative bodies of most fungi, constructed of tiny filaments mycelium -an interwoven mat of hyphae

13 Human hair Fungal hypha

14 Septate hypha: multicellular walls divided by septa Ceonocytic hypha: continuous cytoplasm mass multinucleate no septa

15 Haustoria: Modified hyphae found in parasitic fungi Function: absorb nutrients from host Some fungi even have hyphae adapted for preying on animals.

16 Kingdom Fungi Division Chytridiomycota Division Ascomycota Division Glomeromycota Division Basidiomycota Division Zygomycota Division Deuteromycota

17 Fig Chytrids (1,000 species) Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm Glomeromycete s (160 species) Fungal hypha Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Basidiomycetes (30,000 species) Fungus -like protist Deuteromycota ?

18 The five fungal phyla can be distinguished by their reproductive features.

19 mainly aquatic. Some are saprobes, while others parasitize protists, plants, and animals. chitinous cell wall flagellated zoospores the most primitive fungi Division Chytridiomycota

20 Division Zygomycota “Zygote fungi” (bread molds) Zygote = “mated” hyphal strands Live in soil, water Some are parasites 600 species

21 Mated hyphal strands

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23 The zygosporangia are resistant to freezing and drying. When conditions improve, the zygosporangia release haploid spores that colonize new substrates. –Pilobolus aiming its spores.

24 The zygomycete Rhizopus can reproduce either asexually or sexually.

25 PHYLUM GLOMEROMYCOTA Previously With Zygomycota Small Monophyletic Clade Endomycorrhizae – Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Produce branching Arbuscules

26 Fig µm

27 Plant-Fungal Relationships Mycorrhizae (“fungus roots”) 90% of tree species have this association Very important to absorption of water and nutrients

28 Soil surface Plant roots Mycorrhizae Increases s.a. for absorption

29 Division Ascomycota “Sac fungi” (truffles, yeast) Beer > 6,000 years Wine > 8,000 years Lichens Decomposers, pathogens 60,000 species “yeast” describes a form of fungi (i.e., non-hyphal)

30 Division Ascomycota Scarlet cup truffles Morchella

31 Roquefort cheese Close up of cheese showing blue-green mycelium of Penicillium roqueforti. Division Ascomycota

32 Yeast

33 LICHENS Crusrose Foliose Fruticose

34 Lichen

35 Lichen Anatomy

36 Ascomycetes are characterized by an extensive heterokaryotic stage during the formation of ascocarps.

37 Division Basidiomycota “Club fungi” (mushrooms) Club-shaped reproductive structure Food Plant diseases 25,000 species

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40 Fairy Ring

41 The life cycle of a club fungus usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium.

42 PHYLUM DEUTEROMYCOTA No Longer Exist!! 22,000 species. No known sexual stage. Saprophytic, parasitic and predatory. Many produce conidia. Most classified as Ascomycota. Fusarium wilt of tomato, potato and cotton. Athletes foot, ring worm

43 Division Deuteromycota “Imperfect fungi” (penicillin) Unrelated group Asexual No info on sexual cycle 25,000 species

44 Penicillin Woops… now Ascomycota

45 Candida albicans “yeast infection”

46 Botrytis: “Noble Rot”


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