6 Reproduction varies & is specific FigKeyHaploid (n)HeterokaryoticstageHeterokaryotic(unfused nuclei fromdifferent parents)PLASMOGAMY(fusion of cytoplasm)Diploid (2n)KARYOGAMY(fusion of nuclei)Spore-producingstructuresZygoteSEXUALREPRODUCTIONSporesASEXUALREPRODUCTIONMyceliumMEIOSISGERMINATIONGERMINATIONReproduction varies & is specificSporesanimation
7 Penicillium, asexual structures called conidia Fig. 31-6Penicillium, asexual structures called conidia2.5 µm
8 Yeast reproduce asexually via budding 10 µm Fig. 31-7Yeast reproduce asexually via budding10 µmParentcellBud
9 Fig. 31-8Origin of Fungi is unicellular flagellated protist. Fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants that descended from algae.Animals (and their closeprotistan relatives)UNICELLULAR,FLAGELLATEDANCESTORNucleariidsOpisthokontsChytridsFungiOther fungi
10 3 of 5 Fungi phyla are defined by fruiting body structure Fig. 31-UN13 of 5 Fungi phyla are defined by fruiting body structureChytridsZygomycetes = sphere shapedGlomeromycetesAscomycetes = sac shapedBasidiomycetes = club shaped
28 Fungi Play Key RolesNutrient cycling as decomposers (even jet fuel and house paint)Mutualistic relationship (so both benefit)w/ plants & is called mycchorhizaew/ animals usually to aide in digestionw/ algae or cyanobacteria called lichenPathogenic – disease causingi.e. wheat rust & corn smut.
29 Ants need fungi so they can digest leaves FigAnts need fungi so they can digest leaves
30 > 13,500 lichen species exist Fig> 13,500 lichen species exist Crustose(encrusting)lichensA fruticose (shrublike) lichen A foliose(leaflike)lichen
31 FigIn lichen the alga contributes food and the fungus provides shade, moisture, minerals even toxins so alga is not eaten.Ascocarp of fungusSorediaFungalhyphaeAlgallayerAlgal cell20 µmFungal hyphae
32 Pathogenic Fungi may be killed with fungicides FigPathogenic Fungi may be killed with fungicides(a) Corn smut on corn(b) Tar spot fungus onmaple leaves(c) Ergots on rye
34 Practical Uses of Fungi Food production – i.e. cheesesFoodFermentation – i.e. yeastMedical Value - to produce antibiotics & other drugsGMO to produce enzymes that genetically modified E. coli can not produceYeast as a research specimen since easy to culture and to manipulate
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