Fig Animals (and their close protistan relatives) Other fungi Nucleariids Chytrids UNICELLULAR, FLAGELLATED ANCESTOR Fungi Opisthokonts Origin of Fungi is unicellular flagellated protist. Fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants that descended from algae.
Fig. 31-UN1 Chytrids Basidiomycetes = club shaped Zygomycetes = sphere shaped Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes = sac shaped 3 of 5 Fungi phyla are defined by fruiting body structure
Fig b Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Bread Mold and other fungi that rot food are included with sphere shaped fruiting bodies called zygosporangia that hold spores.
Fig Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid nuclei Mating type (–) Mating type (+) Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n + n) PLASMOGAMY Key Diploid nuclei Zygosporangium 100 µm KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS Sporangium Spores Dispersal and germination ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination Sporangia Mycelium 50 µm
Fig mm Note zygosporangia fruiting bodies
Fig d Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Cup fungi, morels and truffles are examples that hold spores in sac-like fruiting bodies called asci.
Fig e Basidiomycetes (30,000 species) “Grocery store” mushrooms as well as shelf fungi, puffballs and fairy rings have fruiting bodies shaped like pedestals or clubs called basidia.
Fig a Maiden veil fungus (Dictyphora), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat
Fig b Puffballs emitting spores
Fig c Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood
Fig Fairy Ring – underground mycellium can grow 30 cm / yr. so giant rings are centuries old
Basidium Fig SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n +n) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia (n+n) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp (n+n) KARYOGAMY Diploid nuclei MEIOSIS Basidium containing four haploid nuclei Dispersal and germination Basidiospores (n) Basidium with four basidiospores Basidiospore 1 µm Haploid mycelia
Fungi Play Key Roles Nutrient cycling as decomposers (even jet fuel and house paint) Mutualistic relationship (so both benefit) –w/ plants & is called mycchorhizae –w/ animals usually to aide in digestion –w/ algae or cyanobacteria called lichen Pathogenic – disease causing –i.e. wheat rust & corn smut.
Fig Ants need fungi so they can digest leaves
Fig A foliose (leaflike) lichen A fruticose (shrublike) lichen Crustose (encrusting) lichens > 13,500 lichen species exist
Fig Algal cell Ascocarp of fungus Soredia Fungal hyphae Fungal hyphae Algal layer 20 µm In lichen the alga contributes food and the fungus provides shade, moisture, minerals even toxins so alga is not eaten.
Fig (c) Ergots on rye(a) Corn smut on corn (b) Tar spot fungus on maple leaves Pathogenic Fungi may be killed with fungicides
Fig Staphylococcus Zone of inhibited growth Penicillium
Practical Uses of Fungi Food production – i.e. cheeses Food Fermentation – i.e. yeast Medical Value - to produce antibiotics & other drugs GMO to produce enzymes that genetically modified E. coli can not produce Yeast as a research specimen since easy to culture and to manipulate