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Fig. 31-1 Honey Mushroom, Oregon, subterranean filaments =1,800 football fields Ch. 31 Fungi.

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Presentation on theme: "Fig. 31-1 Honey Mushroom, Oregon, subterranean filaments =1,800 football fields Ch. 31 Fungi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fig Honey Mushroom, Oregon, subterranean filaments =1,800 football fields Ch. 31 Fungi

2 Characteristics of Fungi Multicellular Eukaryotes with few unicellular Heterotrophic by absorption Mostly decomposers but some parasites, mutualists, even predator Diverse habitats

3 Fig. 31-4a (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Nematode Hyphae 25 µm

4 Fig Reproductive structure Spore-producing structures Hyphae Mycelium = condensed network of hyphae 20 µm Structures

5 Fig (b) Coenocytic hypha Septum (a) Septate hypha Pore Nuclei Cell wall

6 Fig Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage Zygote Spores GERMINATION MEIOSIS Reproduction varies & is specific animation

7 Fig µm Penicillium, asexual structures called conidia

8 Fig µm Parent cell Bud Yeast reproduce asexually via budding

9 Fig Animals (and their close protistan relatives) Other fungi Nucleariids Chytrids UNICELLULAR, FLAGELLATED ANCESTOR Fungi Opisthokonts Origin of Fungi is unicellular flagellated protist. Fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants that descended from algae.

10 Fig. 31-UN1 Chytrids Basidiomycetes = club shaped Zygomycetes = sphere shaped Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes = sac shaped 3 of 5 Fungi phyla are defined by fruiting body structure

11 Fig. 31-UN6

12 Fig b Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Bread Mold and other fungi that rot food are included with sphere shaped fruiting bodies called zygosporangia that hold spores.

13 Fig. 31-UN6b

14 Fig Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid nuclei Mating type (–) Mating type (+) Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n + n) PLASMOGAMY Key Diploid nuclei Zygosporangium 100 µm KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS Sporangium Spores Dispersal and germination ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination Sporangia Mycelium 50 µm

15 Fig mm Note zygosporangia fruiting bodies

16 Fig d Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Cup fungi, morels and truffles are examples that hold spores in sac-like fruiting bodies called asci.

17 Fig. 31-UN6d

18 Fig a Morchella esculenta, the tasty morel

19 Fig b Tuber melanosporum, a truffle

20 Fig Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination Hypha PLASMOGAMY Haploid spores (conidia) Conidia; mating type (–) Mating type (+) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dikaryotic hyphae Ascus (dikaryotic) Mycelia KARYOGAMY Diploid nucleus (zygote) Germination Asci Dispersal Ascocarp Eight ascospores Four haploid nuclei MEIOSIS

21 Fig e Basidiomycetes (30,000 species) “Grocery store” mushrooms as well as shelf fungi, puffballs and fairy rings have fruiting bodies shaped like pedestals or clubs called basidia.

22 Fig. 31-UN6e

23 Fig a Maiden veil fungus (Dictyphora), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat

24 Fig b Puffballs emitting spores

25 Fig c Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood

26 Fig Fairy Ring – underground mycellium can grow 30 cm / yr. so giant rings are centuries old

27 Basidium Fig SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n +n) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia (n+n) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp (n+n) KARYOGAMY Diploid nuclei MEIOSIS Basidium containing four haploid nuclei Dispersal and germination Basidiospores (n) Basidium with four basidiospores Basidiospore 1 µm Haploid mycelia

28 Fungi Play Key Roles Nutrient cycling as decomposers (even jet fuel and house paint) Mutualistic relationship (so both benefit) –w/ plants & is called mycchorhizae –w/ animals usually to aide in digestion –w/ algae or cyanobacteria called lichen Pathogenic – disease causing –i.e. wheat rust & corn smut.

29 Fig Ants need fungi so they can digest leaves

30 Fig A foliose (leaflike) lichen A fruticose (shrublike) lichen Crustose (encrusting) lichens > 13,500 lichen species exist

31 Fig Algal cell Ascocarp of fungus Soredia Fungal hyphae Fungal hyphae Algal layer 20 µm In lichen the alga contributes food and the fungus provides shade, moisture, minerals even toxins so alga is not eaten.

32 Fig (c) Ergots on rye(a) Corn smut on corn (b) Tar spot fungus on maple leaves Pathogenic Fungi may be killed with fungicides

33 Fig Staphylococcus Zone of inhibited growth Penicillium

34 Practical Uses of Fungi Food production – i.e. cheeses Food Fermentation – i.e. yeast Medical Value - to produce antibiotics & other drugs GMO to produce enzymes that genetically modified E. coli can not produce Yeast as a research specimen since easy to culture and to manipulate


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