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© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Chapter 17 The Evolution of Plant and Fungal Diversity
DIVERSITY OF FUNGI © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
17.14 Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies Fungi –are absorptive heterotrophic eukaryotes, –secrete powerful enzymes to digest their food externally, and –acquire their nutrients by absorption. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Fungal Reproduction and Nutrition
17.14 Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies Most fungi consist of a mass of threadlike hyphae making up a mycelium. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 17.14B Hyphae Reproductive structure Spore-producing structures (tips of hyphae) Mycelium
Figure 17.14B_1 Reproductive structure
17.14 Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies Fungal hyphae –are surrounded by a cell wall made of chitin instead of cellulose. Some fungi –are parasites and –obtain their nutrients at the expense of living plants or animals. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
17.14 Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies Mycorrhizae (plural) –represent a symbiotic relationship between fungi and plant root cells and –are present in nearly all vascular plants. Mycorrhizal fungi absorb phosphorus and other essential materials from the soil and make them available to the plant. Sugars produced by the plant through photosynthesis nourish the mycorrhizal fungi. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
17.15 Fungi produce spores in both asexual and sexual life cycles Molds are any rapidly growing fungus that reproduces asexually by producing spores. Yeasts are single-celled fungi that reproduce asexually by cell division or budding. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
17.16 Fungi are classified into five groups There are over 100,000 described fungi species. Suspected but as yet undescribed species may number as many as 1.5 million. Sexual reproductive structures are often used to classify fungi. Fungi and animals may have diverged –from a flagellated unikont ancestor –more than 1 billion years ago. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 17.16D Ascomycetes Edible morelsCup fungus
17.18 CONNECTION: Parasitic fungi harm plants and animals Of the 100,000 known species of fungi, about 30% are either parasites or pathogens in or on plants. About 80% of plant diseases are caused by fungi. –Between 10 and 50% of the world’s fruit harvest is lost each year to fungal attack. –A variety of fungi, including smuts and rusts, infect grain crops. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 17.18A Order
Figure 17.18C Ergots
17.18 CONNECTION: Parasitic fungi harm plants and animals Only about 50 species of fungi are parasitic on animals. The general term for a fungal infection is mycosis. Skin mycoses include –ringworm, named because it appears as circular red areas on the skin, –athlete’s foot, also caused by the ringworm fungus, –vaginal yeast infections, and –deadly lung diseases. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
17.19 CONNECTION: Fungi have enormous ecological benefits Fungi –supply essential nutrients to plants through symbiotic mycorrhyizae and –are essential decomposers in ecosystems, breaking down decomposing leaves, logs, and feces and dead animals. Fungi may also be used to digest petroleum products to clean up oil spills, such as the 2010 BP spill in the Gulf of Mexico. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fungi have many practical uses for humans. –We eat mushrooms and cheeses modified by fungi. –Yeasts produce alcohol and cause bread to rise. –Some fungi provide antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial disease. –Fungi figure prominently in molecular biology and in biotechnology. Yeasts, for example, are often used to study molecular genetics of eukaryotes. –Fungi may play a major role in the future production of biofuels from plants CONNECTION: Fungi have many practical uses © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 17.20B Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria) Penicillium (mold) Zone of inhibited growth
17.21 Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and photosynthetic organisms Lichens consist of algae or cyanobacteria within a mass of fungal hyphae. –Many lichen associations are mutualistic. –The fungus receives food from its photosynthetic partner. –The fungal mycelium helps the alga absorb and retain water and minerals. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
17.21 Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and photosynthetic organisms Lichens are important pioneers on new land, where they help to form soil. Lichens are sensitive to air pollution, because they obtain minerals from the air. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 17.21B Algal cell Fungal hyphae
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