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1914-1918.  Nationalism  Strong in Balkan Peninsula ▪ Many smaller nations gaining independence from Ottoman Empire (Serbia, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Romania)

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Presentation on theme: "1914-1918.  Nationalism  Strong in Balkan Peninsula ▪ Many smaller nations gaining independence from Ottoman Empire (Serbia, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Romania)"— Presentation transcript:

1 1914-1918


3  Nationalism  Strong in Balkan Peninsula ▪ Many smaller nations gaining independence from Ottoman Empire (Serbia, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Romania) ▪ A-H threatening to annex them ▪ Russia happy to support Slavic nationalism (only to take them over later)  Economic Competition ▪ GB and Germany relations become tense due to economic rivalry ▪ Rivalries encourage strong sense of pride BALKAN PENINSULA

4  Germany  Unification in 1871  Threatened by France and Russia on borders  France  Economy declines due to Franco-Prussian War  After Nap III falls, political chaos  Russia  Massive industrialization under Nicholas II  GB  Losing industrial edge to Germany  Laying low but fearful of German militarism

5  Leads to economic and egotistical competition  International economy and no ability to Police it  Rivalries develop b/w Great Powers over land and wealth  Tension over territories in Africa

6  Glorification of armed strength  War seen as solution to international problems  No major wars within 30 years + ▪ military leaders restless and eager to prove superiority with new weapons ▪ “boys and their toys”  Germany building massive, modern army ▪ Anti-war Social Dems vs. German Imperial Gov’t(needed to prove their power) ▪ Creates anxiety in other Great Powers


8 Year?Name the Treaty/AllianceCountries?

9 11879- Dual Alliance: Germany and A-H 11882-Triple Alliance: Germany, A-H, Italy 11887- Reinsurance Treaty: Germany & Russia LLapses due to new Kaiser 11894-France and Russia become allies 11904-France and GB become allies 11907-Triple Entente: France, Russia & GB 1907: Triple Alliance vs. Triple Entente


11  1908: Austria annexes Bosnia  Large Slavic population  Outraged Slavic leaders looking to self-rule; talk of war  June, 1914: Nationalism peaks in the Balkans  Serbs gaining confidence and looking to challenge Austrian presence in region

12  June 28, 1914  Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia  Serbs use this opportunity to challenge Austrians  Archduke and wife shot at point-blank range ▪ Killer- Gavrilo Princip of the “Black Hand”  Murder causes A-H to go after Serbia with complete support from Germany ▪ “blank check” support

13  June 28-assassination of Archduke  July 5-Germany issues “blank check”  July 23-  July 25-Serbia responds to ultimatum  How?  July 28-  August 1-  August 3-  August 4-




17  the plan was to win the two-front war by first quickly beating France before Russia would be able to mobilize against Germany  depended on Germany's ability to invade France before France could fully mobilize its troops to defend itself, and then to turn on Russia, seen as the slowest of the three to mobilize, before the Russians were ready

18 Central Powers Germany, Austria – Hungary, Ottomans Triple Alliance Allied Powers Russia, France, Great Britain Triple Entente What happened to Italy?

19  Located just east of Paris along the Marne River  GOAL: Allies to push the Germans back from Paris  Allied forces are successful  Schlieffen Plan ruined  Slow moving battle  Both sides “dig in” Why?


21  Machine Gun  Maxim Gun  600 rounds per minute  Most devastating effect on how the war was fought  Forced men into trenches

22  Poison Gas  Heavier than air; good to use against trench warfare  Tear Gas: eye irritant  Mustard Gas: skin irritant  Chlorine: eyes, nose, lung irritant that could cause asphyxiation  Used to force troops to break ranks  Only 4% related-deaths


24  Submarine (U-boats)  Only used by Germans  US and GB had technology but chose not to use it; “ungentlemanly”  Very effective in sinking GB and US ships  Very influential in bringing US into the war

25  Tanks  Used to move through “no man’s land” in trench warfare  Improvement of armored trucks that got stuck in the mud  1916: Developed into “tanks”  Late 1917: more effective tanks finally developed 1916 1918

26  Airplanes  Made out of canvas and wood  Flew up to 100 mph  Early use for reconnaissance  Dog-fights began after mounting machine guns

27  After the Battle of the Marne (1914) it was evident soldiers were not equipped to protect themselves from rapid gunfire…so the dug in…  Trench warfare begins

28  Elaborate system of trenches zigzagged along the Western Front (France)  Used by both Allies and Germans  Only front line soldiers fought in trenches  4 days on, 4 days off depending on conditions



31 It was said you could smell the trenches way before you could see them.

32  Trenches were used on the Western Front only  Not new to war use not commonly used in European wars  Created stalemate on the Western Front…dragging war on for years

33  Very wet and poor sanitary conditions in trenches  Many soldiers came down with trench foot and other diseases  More men died from disease than from combat

34 Mild Case of Trench Foot Severe Case of Trench Foot

35  GOAL: Allies to push Germans lines further back from Paris and Verdun  Fought near Verdun, in Somme River Valley in France  One of the bloodiest battles of the war  1.5 millions lives lost  British gained little more that 5 miles at the deepst point of penetration of German lines  Realization that this was a “war of attrition”


37  All countries resources go to the war effort ▪ Civilians: men drafted to fight; women take on male- roles back home ▪ Government: control of the economy increases ▪ Rationing items: limiting its use by civilians ▪ Controlling industrial production to increase war materials ▪ Propaganda: one-sided promotional information ▪ Government controls the news—national security ▪ Promotes all positive information to keep up morale & support

38  Russia vs. Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottomans, Bulgaria  Trench warfare not used…Russia lacked technology ; best weapon…MEN!  Problem for Allies: Russia cut off from Allied support  Many failed efforts to help send relief to Russia  Italy finally joins Allies 1915

39  August, 1914  Russians easily defeated by Germans  Russians lost many supplies and land  Allies feared that Russia may not hold their own

40  GOAL: Allies use new member –Italy– to gain supply access to Russia  Use Italy as stepping stone into Ottoman territory  Campaign a failure  Russia remains isolated


42  Major contribution was convincing Arab leaders to co-ordinate their revolt to aid British interests against the Ottomans, a Central Power; successful  He sought to convince his superiors in the British Gov’t that Arab independence was in their interests

43  Germans used this strategy of torpedoing ships without warning  Effective in sinking many British naval and cargo ships  GOAL: weaken GB and cut-off their supply lines

44  Largest, fastest ocean liner torpedoed and sunk in 18 minutes off the coast of Ireland.  killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard  138 Americans  Generated much hatred towards Germans  Theory: GB left it as a sitting duck hoping to have US loss of life and bring US into the war against Germany US does not declare war but give stern warning to Germans forcing Germans to end UNRESTRICTED Submarine warfare



47  1917: Russia fighting on Eastern Front for 3 years  on the DEFENSIVE  2 million dead; 6 million deserters  People wanted peace; Czar Nicholas II refuses to pull out of war

48  Germans secretly help set up Communist Revolution in Russia as a diversion  Sent in Russian exile Vladimir Lenin  Forces Czar Nicholas II to abdicate  Once in Communists in place; Russia surrenders to Germany- ends war in East ▪ Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- Russia surrenders land to Germany & Germans leave Russia alone

49  January, 1917  Germans begin unrestricted sub warfare again; needed weaken GB; knew it might bring in US  Precaution: Instigate a war with Mexico against the US to prevent US involvement in WWI  German Foreign Secretary, Zimmerman, sends telegram to Ambassador in Mexico pledging support for a war against US  Intercepted and US declares war on April 2, 1917



52  April 2, 1917- US declares war on Germany  Allies have advantage  US have fresh troops arriving to Western Front  250,000/month by late spring  Germany left with young, weak army; young boys very scared and inexperienced

53  Allies Goal: push Germans out of France completely  Allies much stronger  Germany refuses to surrender but can’t hold their own; largest artillery barrage of entire war…but not enough  Bulgarians, Turks sue for peace  A-H has its own revolution…pulls out of war  Germany left alone to fight Allies

54  Germany Navy mutinies; Germany very close to revolution  November 9, 1918- Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates the throne  November 11, 1918- Germany signs an armistice with Allies  Armistice: agreement to stop fighting  Signed on a RR car outside of Paris  Known as Armistice Day but currently know as…?

55 Paris, Nov 11, 1918

56  January 1918- President Woodrow Wilson drew up his FOURTEEN POINTS to global peace:  End to secret treaties  Freedom of the seas  Reduction of armaments  Redrawing European boundaries with respect to ethnicities  #14: International Political Organization to prevent war (League of Nations)

57  Big Three (four)  US, GB, France (Italy)  Met with 70 delegates from 27 countries  Met at Versailles in Hall of Mirrors  Signed June 28, 1919  Exactly 5 years after assassination of Archduke

58  Germany gets slammed  Lost all colonies  Rhineland occupied by French for 15 years  Austria remain independent  Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia  No navy  No artillery, subs, planes  Standing army of 100,000

59  THE GUILT CLAUSE:  Germany forced to take full blame  Must pay reparations of $31 billion over 33 years  This was most devastating for German people…taking full blame for the actions of their “war monger” Kaiser  Lesson from Congress of Vienna???

60  Goal: to prevent global war and promote peace and diplomacy  Permanent members: France, GB Italy  42 other allied nations members  US never joins; Wilson’s idea, Congress wants to remain isolated and in control  Weak…why?

61  West Ottoman Empire becomes Turkey  rest becomes Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Transjordan  Austria  Hungary  Poland  Czechoslovakia  Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats, Slovenes)  Estonia  Latvia  Lithuania  Finland


63  Germany-2,050,897  A-H-1,100,000  Bulgaria-87,500  Ottomans-771,844  Total- 4,010,241

64  British Empire-1,114,914  France- 1,397,800  Russia- 1,811,000  Italy- 651,000  Serbia- 275,000  Romania- 250,00  United States- 116,708  Others-99,000  Total: 5,711,696

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