Nationalism Strong in Balkan Peninsula ▪ Many smaller nations gaining independence from Ottoman Empire (Serbia, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Romania) ▪ A-H threatening to annex them ▪ Russia happy to support Slavic nationalism (only to take them over later) Economic Competition ▪ GB and Germany relations become tense due to economic rivalry ▪ Rivalries encourage strong sense of pride BALKAN PENINSULA
Germany Unification in 1871 Threatened by France and Russia on borders France Economy declines due to Franco-Prussian War After Nap III falls, political chaos Russia Massive industrialization under Nicholas II GB Losing industrial edge to Germany Laying low but fearful of German militarism
Leads to economic and egotistical competition International economy and no ability to Police it Rivalries develop b/w Great Powers over land and wealth Tension over territories in Africa
Glorification of armed strength War seen as solution to international problems No major wars within 30 years + ▪ military leaders restless and eager to prove superiority with new weapons ▪ “boys and their toys” Germany building massive, modern army ▪ Anti-war Social Dems vs. German Imperial Gov’t(needed to prove their power) ▪ Creates anxiety in other Great Powers
11879- Dual Alliance: Germany and A-H 11882-Triple Alliance: Germany, A-H, Italy 11887- Reinsurance Treaty: Germany & Russia LLapses due to new Kaiser 11894-France and Russia become allies 11904-France and GB become allies 11907-Triple Entente: France, Russia & GB 1907: Triple Alliance vs. Triple Entente
1908: Austria annexes Bosnia Large Slavic population Outraged Slavic leaders looking to self-rule; talk of war June, 1914: Nationalism peaks in the Balkans Serbs gaining confidence and looking to challenge Austrian presence in region
June 28, 1914 Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia Serbs use this opportunity to challenge Austrians Archduke and wife shot at point-blank range ▪ Killer- Gavrilo Princip of the “Black Hand” Murder causes A-H to go after Serbia with complete support from Germany ▪ “blank check” support
June 28-assassination of Archduke July 5-Germany issues “blank check” July 23- July 25-Serbia responds to ultimatum How? July 28- August 1- August 3- August 4-
the plan was to win the two-front war by first quickly beating France before Russia would be able to mobilize against Germany depended on Germany's ability to invade France before France could fully mobilize its troops to defend itself, and then to turn on Russia, seen as the slowest of the three to mobilize, before the Russians were ready
Central Powers Germany, Austria – Hungary, Ottomans Triple Alliance Allied Powers Russia, France, Great Britain Triple Entente What happened to Italy?
Located just east of Paris along the Marne River GOAL: Allies to push the Germans back from Paris Allied forces are successful Schlieffen Plan ruined Slow moving battle Both sides “dig in” Why?
Machine Gun Maxim Gun 600 rounds per minute Most devastating effect on how the war was fought Forced men into trenches
Poison Gas Heavier than air; good to use against trench warfare Tear Gas: eye irritant Mustard Gas: skin irritant Chlorine: eyes, nose, lung irritant that could cause asphyxiation Used to force troops to break ranks Only 4% related-deaths
Submarine (U-boats) Only used by Germans US and GB had technology but chose not to use it; “ungentlemanly” Very effective in sinking GB and US ships Very influential in bringing US into the war
Tanks Used to move through “no man’s land” in trench warfare Improvement of armored trucks that got stuck in the mud 1916: Developed into “tanks” Late 1917: more effective tanks finally developed 1916 1918
Airplanes Made out of canvas and wood Flew up to 100 mph Early use for reconnaissance Dog-fights began after mounting machine guns
After the Battle of the Marne (1914) it was evident soldiers were not equipped to protect themselves from rapid gunfire…so the dug in… Trench warfare begins
Elaborate system of trenches zigzagged along the Western Front (France) Used by both Allies and Germans Only front line soldiers fought in trenches 4 days on, 4 days off depending on conditions
It was said you could smell the trenches way before you could see them.
Trenches were used on the Western Front only Not new to war use not commonly used in European wars Created stalemate on the Western Front…dragging war on for years
Very wet and poor sanitary conditions in trenches Many soldiers came down with trench foot and other diseases More men died from disease than from combat
Mild Case of Trench Foot Severe Case of Trench Foot
GOAL: Allies to push Germans lines further back from Paris and Verdun Fought near Verdun, in Somme River Valley in France One of the bloodiest battles of the war 1.5 millions lives lost British gained little more that 5 miles at the deepst point of penetration of German lines Realization that this was a “war of attrition”
All countries resources go to the war effort ▪ Civilians: men drafted to fight; women take on male- roles back home ▪ Government: control of the economy increases ▪ Rationing items: limiting its use by civilians ▪ Controlling industrial production to increase war materials ▪ Propaganda: one-sided promotional information ▪ Government controls the news—national security ▪ Promotes all positive information to keep up morale & support
Russia vs. Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottomans, Bulgaria Trench warfare not used…Russia lacked technology ; best weapon…MEN! Problem for Allies: Russia cut off from Allied support Many failed efforts to help send relief to Russia Italy finally joins Allies 1915
August, 1914 Russians easily defeated by Germans Russians lost many supplies and land Allies feared that Russia may not hold their own
GOAL: Allies use new member –Italy– to gain supply access to Russia Use Italy as stepping stone into Ottoman territory Campaign a failure Russia remains isolated
Major contribution was convincing Arab leaders to co-ordinate their revolt to aid British interests against the Ottomans, a Central Power; successful He sought to convince his superiors in the British Gov’t that Arab independence was in their interests
Germans used this strategy of torpedoing ships without warning Effective in sinking many British naval and cargo ships GOAL: weaken GB and cut-off their supply lines
Largest, fastest ocean liner torpedoed and sunk in 18 minutes off the coast of Ireland. killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard 138 Americans Generated much hatred towards Germans Theory: GB left it as a sitting duck hoping to have US loss of life and bring US into the war against Germany US does not declare war but give stern warning to Germans forcing Germans to end UNRESTRICTED Submarine warfare
1917: Russia fighting on Eastern Front for 3 years on the DEFENSIVE 2 million dead; 6 million deserters People wanted peace; Czar Nicholas II refuses to pull out of war
Germans secretly help set up Communist Revolution in Russia as a diversion Sent in Russian exile Vladimir Lenin Forces Czar Nicholas II to abdicate Once in Communists in place; Russia surrenders to Germany- ends war in East ▪ Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- Russia surrenders land to Germany & Germans leave Russia alone
January, 1917 Germans begin unrestricted sub warfare again; needed weaken GB; knew it might bring in US Precaution: Instigate a war with Mexico against the US to prevent US involvement in WWI German Foreign Secretary, Zimmerman, sends telegram to Ambassador in Mexico pledging support for a war against US Intercepted and US declares war on April 2, 1917
April 2, 1917- US declares war on Germany Allies have advantage US have fresh troops arriving to Western Front 250,000/month by late spring Germany left with young, weak army; young boys very scared and inexperienced
Allies Goal: push Germans out of France completely Allies much stronger Germany refuses to surrender but can’t hold their own; largest artillery barrage of entire war…but not enough Bulgarians, Turks sue for peace A-H has its own revolution…pulls out of war Germany left alone to fight Allies
Germany Navy mutinies; Germany very close to revolution November 9, 1918- Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates the throne November 11, 1918- Germany signs an armistice with Allies Armistice: agreement to stop fighting Signed on a RR car outside of Paris Known as Armistice Day but currently know as…?
January 1918- President Woodrow Wilson drew up his FOURTEEN POINTS to global peace: End to secret treaties Freedom of the seas Reduction of armaments Redrawing European boundaries with respect to ethnicities #14: International Political Organization to prevent war (League of Nations)
Big Three (four) US, GB, France (Italy) Met with 70 delegates from 27 countries Met at Versailles in Hall of Mirrors Signed June 28, 1919 Exactly 5 years after assassination of Archduke
Germany gets slammed Lost all colonies Rhineland occupied by French for 15 years Austria remain independent Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia No navy No artillery, subs, planes Standing army of 100,000
THE GUILT CLAUSE: Germany forced to take full blame Must pay reparations of $31 billion over 33 years This was most devastating for German people…taking full blame for the actions of their “war monger” Kaiser Lesson from Congress of Vienna???
Goal: to prevent global war and promote peace and diplomacy Permanent members: France, GB Italy 42 other allied nations members US never joins; Wilson’s idea, Congress wants to remain isolated and in control Weak…why?
West Ottoman Empire becomes Turkey rest becomes Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Transjordan Austria Hungary Poland Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats, Slovenes) Estonia Latvia Lithuania Finland