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MODAL VERBS. What are Modal Verbs? Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences:

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Presentation on theme: "MODAL VERBS. What are Modal Verbs? Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences:"— Presentation transcript:

1 MODAL VERBS

2 What are Modal Verbs? Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences: 1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person. Examples: He can speak Chinese. She should be here by 9: You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past. Examples: He should not be late. They might not come to the party.

3 3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses. Examples: He will can go with us. Not Correct She musted study very hard. Not Correct Common Modal Verbs Can - Could -May – Might – Must - Ought to - Shall Should - Will - Would

4 Can "Can" is one of the most common modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility. Examples: I can ride a horse. ability We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. opportunity She cannot stay out after 10 PM. permission Can you hand me the stapler? request Any child can grow up to be president.possibility He can’t be that old. Impossibility

5 Could "Could" is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests. "Could" is also commonly used in conditional sentences as the conditional form of "can." conditional Examples: Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. Possibility in the past Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11. past ability You could see a movie or go out to dinner. suggestion Could I use your computer to my boss? request We could go on the trip if I didn't have to work this weekend. 2 nd conditional

6 Had Better "Had better" is most commonly used to make recommendations. It can also be used to express desperate hope as well as warn people. Examples: You had better take your umbrella with you today. recommendation That bus had better get here soon! desperate hope You had better watch the way you talk to me in the future! warning  "Had better" is often simply pronounced as "better" in spoken English.

7 Have To "Have to" is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation. Examples: This answer has to be correct. (I am certain about it…) - certainty The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. (it’s not necessary…) - necessity They have to leave early.( they are obliged…for some reason) obligation REMEMBER: "Do not have to" vs. "Must not"  "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something.  "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. Examples: You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed. You don't have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.

8 Have Got To "Have got to" is used to express necessity and obligation. Examples: Drivers have got to get a license to drive a car in the US. (it’s necessary, otherwise…) - necessity I have got to be at work by 8:30 AM. (you are obliged to…) obligation

9 May "May" is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to give or request permission, although this usage is becoming less common. Examples: Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work. (… or may be not…mmm… ) - possibility Johnny, you may (=can) leave the table when you have finished your dinner. give permission May I use your bathroom? (Can I use… more politely) - request permission

10 Might "Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English. conditional Examples: Your purse might be in the living room.- possibility If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. - conditional You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. suggestion Might I borrow your pen? request REMEMBER: "Might not" vs. "Could not"  "Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens.  "Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen.  "Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen.Examples: Jack might not have the key. Maybe he does not have the key. Jack could not have the key. It is impossible that he has the key.

11 Must "Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not". Examples: This must be the right address! certainty Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. necessity You must take some medicine for that cough. strong recommendation Jenny, you must not play in the street! prohibition REMEMBER: "Must not" vs. "Do not have to" "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. Examples: You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed. You don't have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.

12 Modal Verbs Exercise 2 must - have to 1. I …………….be at the meeting by 10:00. I will…………………. probably take a taxi if I want to be on time. 2. You…………………. submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. Check that the name, address, and background information are correct. If the form is not accurate and complete, you will……………… be rejected and you will reapply at a later date. 3. Tina: Look at these flowers - they're beautiful! But, there's no card. Who could have sent them? Stephanie: It……………………… have been David. He's the only one who would send you flowers. 4. You ……………………forget to pay the rent tomorrow. The landlord is very strict about paying on time. 5. You……………………… be so rude! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. 6. If you are over 18 in California, you …………………..take a driver training course to get a driver's license. You can have a friend or a family member teach you instead. But remember, you ………………………..still get your permit before you start practicing.

13 Ought To "Ought to" is used to advise or make recommendations. "Ought to" also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. "Ought not" (without "to") is used to advise against doing something, although Americans prefer the less formal forms "should not" or "had better not." Examples: You ought to stop smoking. recommendation Jim ought to get the promotion. It is expected because he deserves it. This stock ought to increase in value. probability Mark ought not drink so much. advice against something (notice there is no "to")

14 Notice "Ought not" Instead of "ought not to," we say "ought not." "Ought not" is more commonly used in British English. Americans prefer "should not." Examples: You ought not smoke so much. She ought not take such risks while skiing. They ought not carry so much cash while traveling.

15 Shall "Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is often found in suggestions, such as "Shall we go?" "Shall" is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. Examples: Shall I help you? suggestion I shall never forget where I came from. promise He shall become our next king. predestination I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. inevitability

16 Should "Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation. Examples: When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. (I recomment you to visit…)- recommendation You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation By now, they should already be in Dubai. expectation

17 Modal Verbs Exercise 1 can could have to must might should 1.Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He …………………………be exhausted after such a long flight. He …………………………prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest. 2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you …………………..walk downtown and explore the waterfront. 3. Hiking the trail to the peak…………………. be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You …………………..research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent. 4. When you have a small child in the house, you ……………………..leave small objects lying around. Such objects…………………. be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death. 5. Dave: ……………….you hold your breath for more than a minute? Nathan: No, I can't.

18 6. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It ………………have cost a fortune. 7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water, they………………… die. 8. I …………………..speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I …………………..just say a few things in the language. 9. The book is optional. My professor said we ………………read it if we needed extra credit. But we …………………..read it if we don't want to. 10. Leo: Where is the spatula? It ………………be in this drawer but it's not here. Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. It……………… be in there. That's the only other place it ………………………be.

19 Will "Will" is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. "Will" can also be used to make predictions about the future. Examples: I promise that I will write you every single day. promise I will make dinner tonight. voluntary action He thinks it will rain tomorrow. prediction

20 Would  "Would" is most commonly used to create conditional verb forms.  It also serves as the past form of the modal verb "will."  "would" can indicate repetition in the past. Examples: If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies. conditional I knew that she would be very successful in her career. past of "will" When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. repetition

21 Multiple Choice Exercise could – might – should – would 1.Donna: If I won the ten million dollar lottery jackpot, I ……………………afford to quit my job and travel the world. Sam: Where ………………….you go if you had that much money? Donna: I don't know, I ……………..choose to spend a year in Paris - or perhaps I …………………..go to Kenya. Sam: How often do you buy lottery tickets? Donna: Never... I guess if I want to win the lottery, I……………. try buying some tickets. Sam: That……………….. help.

22 Modal Forms Modal Simple-I could swim at the beach. Modal Continuous - I could be swimming at the beach right now. Modal Perfect - I could have swum at the beach yesterday. Modal Perfect Continuous - I could have been swimming at the beach instead of working in the office. Passive Modal Simple -The room should be cleaned once a day. Passive Modal Continuous - The room should be being cleaned now. Passive Modal Perfect - The room should have been cleaned yesterday. Passive Modal Perfect Continuous - The room should have been being cleaned but nobody was there. (Rare form)

23 Modal Final Test Multiple Choice Exercise 1. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He be exhausted after such a long flight. 2. The book is optional. My professor said we could read it if we needed extra credit. But we read it if we don't want to. 3. Susan hear the speaker because the crowd was cheering so loudly. 4. The television isn't working. It damaged during the move. 5. Kate: hold your breath for more than a minute? Jack: No, I can't.


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