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Norsarihan/lang description_2011 1. What are modals? Auxiliary verbs Had better May Must Might Ought to Will Shall Should Would Can Could Norsarihan/lang.

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Presentation on theme: "Norsarihan/lang description_2011 1. What are modals? Auxiliary verbs Had better May Must Might Ought to Will Shall Should Would Can Could Norsarihan/lang."— Presentation transcript:

1 Norsarihan/lang description_2011 1

2 What are modals? Auxiliary verbs Had better May Must Might Ought to Will Shall Should Would Can Could Norsarihan/lang description_2011 2

3 Why do we use modals? obligations suggestions advise expectations Norsarihan/lang description_2011 3

4 Modal or modal auxiliaries change the meaning of the base verb. The meaning changes according to the context of the sentence. We should allow him to stay I want to be a good person She can be a good person Norsarihan/lang description_2011 4

5 Two types of modals: 1.Simple modals : for the present and future 2.Perfect modals: to show necessity in the past tense. Norsarihan/lang description_2011 5

6 Simple modals: Present and future Modal + base form Examples: – We should invite your friend to my party. – We could buy some soda if you have money. – You might want to call your mom and tell her you are at a friend’s house. Norsarihan/lang description_2011 6

7 Perfect modals: past Modal + have + past participle Examples: – You should have called me last night. – Mary should have done her homework this week. – We should not have made a big mess here. Norsarihan/lang description_2011 7

8 Showing strong necessity: MustI must go to sleep! Have toI have to go to sleep! Have got toI have got to go to sleep! Norsarihan/lang description_2011 8

9 You use Had better for a WARNING! RECOMMENDATIONS, or DESPERATION. You had better bring your portfolio with you today. recommendation That bus had better get here soon! desperate hope You had better watch the way you talk to me in the future! warning Norsarihan/lang description_2011 9

10 Use Should to offer advise Should means…it would be a good idea. You should eat something you are hungry. You should read a book and turn off the television. They should stop being so loud. We should have a party at the beach. Norsarihan/lang description_

11 Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: had better recommen dation 1.SHIFT TO "SHOULD" OR "OUGHT TO" People should unplug toasters before they clean them. 2.SHIFT TO "SHOULD HAVE" OR "OUGHT TO HAVE" You should have unplugged the toaster before you tried to clean it. 3. You had better unplug the toaster before you try to clean it. 1.SHIFT TO "SHOULD" OR "OUGHT TO" People shouldn't clean toasters without unplugging them first. 2.SHIFT TO "SHOULD HAVE" OR "OUGHT TO HAVE" You shouldn't have cleaned the toaster without unplugging it first. 3.You had better not clean the toaster until you unplug it. should, ought to had better desperate hope, warning The movie had better end soon. They had better be here before we start dinner. Desperate hopes and warnings usually refer to the near future. They had better not be late. They had better not forget Tom's birthday gift. Desperate hopes and warnings usually refer to the near future. Irregular modal verbs in the past and future Norsarihan/lang description_

12 Could or might are more gentle than should…. You could read a book. You should read a book. They might like the movie. They should like the movie. We could buy some candy. We should buy some candy. I might play basketball. I should play basketball. He could win your blue marble. He should win your blue marble. Norsarihan/lang description_

13 Meanings of modals 1 ModalsDefinitionExamples canto express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility. I can play football. ability We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. opportunity She cannot stay out after 10 PM. permission Can you hand me the stapler? request Any child can grow up to be Prime Minister. possibility couldto express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests. Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. possibility Awang could ski like a pro by the age of 11. past ability You could see a movie or go out to dinner. suggestion Could I use your computer to my lecturer? request We could go on the trip if I didn't have to work this weekend. conditional Norsarihan/lang description_

14 Meanings of modals 2 ModalsDefinitionExamples have toto express certainty, necessity, and obligation. This answer has to be correct. certainty The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. necessity They have to leave early. obligation have got to to express necessity and obligation. Drivers have got to get a license to drive a car in the US. necessity I have got to be at work by 8:30 AM. obligation mayto express possibility or request permission Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work. possibility John, you may leave the room when you have finished your assignment. give permission May I use your bathroom? request permission Norsarihan/lang description_

15 Meanings of modals 3 ModalsDefinitionExamples mightto express possibility. Can also use to make suggestions or requests Your purse might be in the living room. possibility If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. conditional You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. suggestion Might I borrow your pen? request mustto express certainty, to express necessity or strong recommendation, This must be the right address! certainty Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. necessity You must take some medicine for that cough. strong recommendation Jenny, you must not play in the street! prohibition Norsarihan/lang description_

16 Meanings of modals 4 ModalsDefinitionExamples ought toto advise or make recommendations, also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. You ought to stop smoking. recommendation Jim ought to get the promotion. It is expected because he deserves it. This stock ought to increase in value. probability Mark ought not drink so much. advice against something (notice there is no "to") shallto indicate future action. commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions, also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. Shall I help you? suggestion I shall never forget where I came from. promise He shall become our next king. predestination I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. inevitability Norsarihan/lang description_

17 Meanings of modals 5 ModalsDefinitionExamples shouldto make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation. When you go to Miri, you should visit Mulu. recommendation You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation By now, they should already be in Dubai. expectation willused with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. Can also be used to make predictions about the future I promise that I will call you every single day. promise I will make dinner tonight. voluntary action He thinks it will rain tomorrow. prediction Norsarihan/lang description_

18 Meanings of modals 6 ModalsDefinitionExamples wouldused to create conditional verb forms. It also serves as the past form of the modal verb "will." "would" can also indicate repetition in the past. If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies. conditional I knew that she would be very successful in her career. past of "will" When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. repetition used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. Can also be used to make predictions about the future I promise that I will call you every single day. promise I will make dinner tonight. voluntary action He thinks it will rain tomorrow. prediction Norsarihan/lang description_

19 Modals SimpleI could swim at the beach. ContinuousI could be swimming at the beach right now. PerfectI could have swum at the beach yesterday. Perfect ContinuousI could have been swimming at the beach instead of working in the office. Passive Modal SimpleThe room should be cleaned once a day. Passive Modal ContinuousThe room should be being cleaned now. Passive Modal PerfectThe room should have been cleaned yesterday. Modal verbs used in variety of forms Norsarihan/lang description_

20 Sentence pairs: He must be herebecause I see his jacket on his chair. I should buy a present because it is Julie’s birthday. You could call me tonight since you will be at home. They should come to my house to play Nintendo. He could win a prizeif he turns in his raffle ticket. Norsarihan/lang description_

21 Conversation cards: Small group discussions Why should the school day be shorter? Name three things you should not do in class. What could you do to be a good friend? What would you do if you won a million dollars? If you could meet one famous person, who would it be? What might happen if pigs could fly? Norsarihan/lang description_


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