2 Can *be able to is also possible in the meaning of ability. I can play rugby. (I know how to - ability)*I can visit my grandfather tomorrow (It is possible for me. I’m not busy.)Can you help me? (Please help me – request)Can I leave early today? (Asking for permission)You can’t park here. (It is prohibited to park here)He can’t be ill. I saw him at the gym yesterday. (negative certainity)
3 be able to (ability)Use be able to with simple and perfect tenses instead of can:Simple Present: She is able to run 1000 meters in 15 minutes.Simple Past: Adele was able to sing very well when she was only 5.Future: You will be able to speak 2 languages when you graduate.Pre.Perfect: I have been able to play the violin since my childhood.Be going to: I’m going to be able drive a car when I get my license.
4 What do they mean?My sister can cook meals from all kinds of world cuisine.He can’t be her uncle. She told me her uncle died years ago.I can pay you next week if you lend me some more money.You can’t go walk into a mosque with your shoes. Take them off.Can I open one of the windows to let the fresh air in?Can you please tell me how to go to the nearest post office?She will be able to swim faster than me if she practices daily.She can’t be an English teacher. She couldn’t talk to the tourist in the restaurant.I can’t come to visit you tomorrow. I have an important meeting.Please, I need some help. Can you lend me your car just for tonight?Can we try a little bit before we buy this cheese?
5 may/might/could/can (possibility) We might/may/could/can have a picnic tomorrow, but it depends on the weather.I might/may/could/can not go to the party. I haven’t decided yet.I might/may/could/can go to the party, but I’m not sure.I might/may/could/can not have time to do everything today.
6 may (permission) May I use your phone? (Asking permission) Can is also possible in this meaning.But may is more polite and formal.May I use your phone? (Asking permission)Can I use your phone?May we leave early today? (Asking permission)Can we leave early today?You may go out if you don’t feel well. (giving permission)You can go out if you don’t feel well.
7 What do they mean? May I see your report, please? You may not use your phone in a test.May I talk to you after the class?Can I take this pen for a while?He may come to class late. He missed the bus.I can use this machine. I know how to operate it.My brother might visit us this summer.
8 should/shouldn’t (advice) ought to/ought not to I think you shouldn’t change your job.The government should do more for old people.I think you ought not to change your job.The government ought to do more for old people.should and ought to have the same meaning, but should is more common
9 should or shouldn’tMy uncle ________ stop smoking. It really threatens his health.Ronnie _________ make his girlfriend so angry. She gets disappointed easily.Josh _________ miss any more classes, or else he will fail.You _________ obey what your father tells you. All in all, he is your father.shouldshouldn’tshouldn’tshould
10 had better + V1 (strong advice) She had better stop smoking. It is too dangerous for him.I had better study for my English exam, or I will fail!You had better not touch that frog, john.It is very poisonous.
11 had better or had better not He __________ hurry up because he has only 5 minutes to catch the bus. He may be late for the test.Susan __________ leave home without an umbrella. It is rainy today, so she might get soaked.We _________ leave her alone. She is really disappointed. She may harm herself.
12 The difference between had better and should Use should for more general situations:1. Drivers shouldn’t listen to loud music in the traffic. (not had better)2. Students should come to class before their teachers.Use had better for more specific situations:1. My uncle had better buy him a new car. The engine of his car is almost dead.2. John had better come to class on time. I think the teacher will not excuse him.
13 had better or shouldYou _________ sleep early today. You have a test at 9:00am.Babies _________ sleep early. They need more sleep than teens.Alice _________ study more to pass level C. Otherwise she will fail.A university student _________ study more than a high school student.All the people _________ do sports to leave healthy.Susan _________ do sports to lose some weight.
14 have to/must/have got to +V1 Use have to to talk about rules and obligations, or to say somethingnecessary.Use do/does to make questions.She has to/must/has got to get up at 7:00 every day.You have to/must/have got to drive on the left in the UK.No Contraction of have or has:I have to go. NOT I’ve to go.Use only have to in questions.Do you have to wear a uniform at the university?NOT Do you have got to wear a…NOT Must you wear a…
15 don’t have to +V1 - needn’t + V1 don’t need to + V1 They express absence of necessity.You don’t have to/needn’t/don’t need to clean the room. I’ve already done.She doesn’t have to/needn’t/doesn’t need to take her jacket. It’s not cold outside.
16 have to – don’t have toYou __________ pay cash. Credit card is also accepted.Children under 13 __________ buy a ticket. It is free for them.John __________ graduate from the university this term. Otherwise, she will be kicked off from the university. It is the 12th term of her.All graduates of high school __________ take the University Entrance Exam to be accepted to a university in Turkey.
17 mustn’t + V1 Use mustn’t +V1 to say something is prohibited. You mustn’t smoke here. It is against the law.Students mustn’t go into the Testing Office. That is the rule.You mustn’t hunt in this season. It has a fine of 5000$can’t +V1 is also possible in this meaning:You can’t smoke here. It is against the law.Students can’t go into the Testing Office. That is the rule.You can’t hunt in this season. It has a fine of 5000$
20 mustn’t – have to – don’t have to Drivers ___________ turn left in this junction. It is forbidden.All passengers ___________ wear their seatbelts before we move.In a military zone you __________ take photos.My mother ___________ cook for us tonight because we will eat at a restaurant.Students ___________ pay for the ticket. It is free for them.
21 mustn’thave todon’t have tohave tomustn’tdon’t have tohave todon’t have to
22 Degrees of Certainty:My sister is very thin. She has been picky eater since her childhood.They must be out. There aren’t any lights on.She must have a lot of money. She drives a Porsche. (When you are sure about it use must)He may/might/could be sick today. She is not at the school.100% Sure90% Sure90% Sure50% Sure
23 Negative Certainty: Sam isn’t hungry. 100% Sure Sam can’t be hungry. Sam couldn’t be hungry.99% SureSam mustn’t be hungry.95% SureSam may not be hungry.Sam might not be hungry.50% Sure
24 Degrees of CertaintyMy brother_______ (be) 18 years old. He took his driving license a couple of days ago.He ________ (be) really in dept. He is selling his house.She ________ (have) a dog because she is buying dog food every week.Paul _______ (be) in a trouble. I haven’t seen him for ages.I’m not sure, but the doctor _______ (leave) early today.
25 can could have to must might should 1.Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He__________ be exhaustedafter such a long flight. He__________prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.2.If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you__________walk downtown and explore the waterfront.3.Hiking the trail to the peak__________be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You__________research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent.
26 can could have to must might should 4.When you have a small child in the house, you__________leave small objects lyingaround. Such objects__________be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.5.Dave:__________you hold your breath for more than a minute?Nathan: No, I can't.6.Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It__________have cost a fortune.7.Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water,they__________die.8.I__________speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But afterwe moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almosteverything I knew as a child. Now, I__________just say a few things in the language.9.The book is optional. My professor said we__________read it if we needed extracredit. But we__________read it if we don't want to.
27 Will You-Could you-Would you? Use to request something from somebody.Will you please close the door?Could you help me to carry these bags, please?Would you please call me if the manager arrives?
28 Suggestions: Shall I/we –Let’s+V1-Why don’t we…? Shall I print out a copy for you? Shall we spend this weekend out? Let’s go to a movie together. Let’s visit the famous museums in Gaziantep. Why don’t we eat out tonight? Why don’t we finish early?
29 A request or suggestion? _________________to him? He will see what we need. (we/speak)_________________ me alone, please? I need some rest. (you/leave)_________________ the manager? I have to talk to him. (I/see)