Presentation on theme: "Past Modals Mustafa Güneş. could + V1 was/were able to + V1 My brother was able to write at the age of 4. I could jump up to 1.60 when I was ten years."— Presentation transcript:
Past Modals Mustafa Güneş
could + V1 was/were able to + V1 My brother was able to write at the age of 4. I could jump up to 1.60 when I was ten years old. He was able to/could drive when he first came to Turkey. He learned it in Egypt, not here. same meaning Use could/was able to to talk about the abilities you had in the past.
had to + V1 I had to leave my car there when it suddenly broke down. He had to cut his hair because the principal of the school didn’t allow him to the school with so long hair. In the 18 th century, puritans in England had to move to the Newfound Land (America) because of the religious pressure in England. Use had to + V1 to talk about an obligation in the past.
didn’t need to/didn’t have to use didn’t need to + V1 / didn’t have to + V1 to talk about the absence of necessity in the past. I didn’t need to /didn’t have to work when I was a student. We had plenty of petrol in the tank, so I didn’t need to /didn’t have to fill up.
1.My sister __________ (write) in English when she was only 5. 2.In the World War II, several people __________ leave home in Dresden because of heavy bombardment. 3.We _________ get any credit from anywhere last winter. If we could, we ______________ (sell) our house. 4.He _________ (study) for the test because the professor cancelled it. 5.My father took me to the airport, so I _________ take a taxi to there.
may have + V3 might have + V3 could have + V3 They could have stolen your wallet when you were getting of the train. He hasn’t arrived yet. You might not have given him the right directions. She may have caught the virus when she was abroad. same meaning Use might/may/could have when you think it’s possible that something happened or was true. However couldn’t have + V3 has a different meaning.
must have + V3 use must have + V3 to make a logical assumption in the past. (if you are almost sure something was true) The roads are wet. It must have rained last night. She speaks German fluently. She must have studied in Germany.
Degrees of Certainty – Past time Why was not Mary in class? She was sick ! 100% She must have been sick ! 95 % She may have been sick She might have been sick 50% or less She could have been sick
can’t/couldn’t have + V3 use can’t/couldn’t have + V3 to say that you are almost sure something was untrue. He can’t/couldn’t have been sick. I saw him at the cinema last night. Mr. Lock can’t/couldn’t have studied law at the university because he is a doctor. He must have studied medicine.
She was sick ! She must have been sick ! She may have been sick. She might have been sick. She could have been sick. He was not hungry. He couldn’t have been hungry. He cant have been hungry. (He mustn’t have been hungry.) He may not have been hungry. He might not have been hungry. ----
Degrees of certainty: Past time (negative) Why didn’t Sam eat ? He was not hungry. 100% He couldn’t have been hungry. He cant have been hungry. He mustn’t have been hungry. 95% He may not have been hungry He might not have been hungry. 99% 50%
① She ___________ (cook) the dinner before we arrived. I didn’t see her cooking. ② Your uncle __________ (buy) that Porsche. You told me he was not rich. ③ Miranda __________ (sell) her car. I have seen her walking to the bus stop for a few times. ④ Ahmet _______ (meet) you before because he asked me who you were at the party. ⑤ I’m not sure that I took my umbrella. I ________ (forget) it at home. ⑥ He __________ (get) a low grade on the test. He was a bit upset.
should + have + V3 ought to have + V3 She should have/ought to have phoned her boss an hour ago, but she didn’t. Her boss will be furious with her. You should have/ought to have asked your father before you drove here. Call him right now! same meaning Use should/ought to have + V3 to talk about something you didn’t do, but it was necessary. As you didn’t do it, you will face something bad.
shouldn’t have + V3 You shouldn’t have told my father about the concert. Now, he will not let me come with you. He shouldn’t have spoken to her so early. It is not certain that he will move to another city. She was really upset when I saw her yesterday. Use should have + V3 to talk about something you did, but it was unnecessary. As you did it, you will face something bad.
should (not) have / shouldn’t have 1.I told you several times before. You _________ (pay) the money you owe to me. Give me right now! 2.Now you have to pay a fine of 250TL. You _________ (drive) so fast in the highway. 3.I got 40 in the quiz. I __________ more, but I couldn’t because I was at the hospital at the weekend. 4.You _________ (have) so much coffee. Now you can’t sleep.