2 MODAL VERBS Only used in one form ( no past, no –ing form, no –s in 3rd person singular)Negative : place not after the modal verbnever conjugatedMODAL VERBSAlways come before subject in interrogative sentencesExpress an idea (possibility,necessity,obligation etcAlways followed by a main verb in the base form
3 CAN PERMISSION OR REQUEST Can I call you later? ABILITY/INABILITY I can play the piano.OPPORTUNITY TO DO SOMETHING/POSSIBILITYI´m free tonight so we can go out.
4 CAN – affirmative and negative forms YouHeSheItWethey+ CANCAN´T CANNOTVerb in the base form+ complementsATTENTION!Can´t/cannot indicate impossibility
5 MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM CAN – negative formIYouHeSheItWetheyMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS?CAN
6 COULD PAST ABILITY PAST OF CAN POSSIBILITY When I was young, I could ride a bike.PAST OF CAN.POSSIBILITYI think we could have another Gulf war.MORE POLITE THAN CAN (REQUEST)Could you open the door, please?
7 COULD – affirmative and negative forms YOUHESHEITWETHEY+ COULDCOULD NOTCOULDN´TMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTSATTENTION!COULD NOTSuggests that it´s impossible for something to happen
8 COULD – interrogative form YOUHESHEITWETHEYMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS?COULD
9 DEDUCTION OR CENTAINTY MUSTOBLIGATION(“must” involves the speaker´s authority or opinion)You must go to bed, said her mumDEDUCTION OR CENTAINTYThat must be Jerry, they said he is tall and has red hair.
10 MUST – affirmative and negative + MUST- MUST NOTMUSTN´TMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS
11 You must not swim in that river, it is full of crocodiles MUST NOT = MUSTN´TPROHIBITIONYou must not swim in that river, it is full of crocodiles
12 MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM MUST - interrogativeMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS?MUST
13 Polite permission or request MAYPossibilityHe may run the marathon this yearPolite permission or requestMay I go now? Yes, you may
14 MAY – affirmative and negative forms MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS+ MAY- MAY NOTATTENTION!THERE IS NO ABBREVIATION FOR MAY NOT
15 MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM MAY - interrogativeMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS?MAY
16 To say that you are not sure that something is going to happen MIGHTTo say that you are not sure that something is going to happenShe might come to my house later.
17 MIGHT – affirmative and negative forms - MIGHT NOTMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTSATTENTION!IT´S NOT USUALLY USED IN INTERROGATIVE FORM.
19 I have to wear a uniform in my school HAVE/HAS TOOBLIGATION( based in a law or rule)I have to wear a uniform in my school
20 She doesn´t have to finish her composition tonight DON´T/DOESN´T HAVE TOIt is not necessary to do something, you can do it if you want but it is not necessaryShe doesn´t have to finish her composition tonight
21 HAVE/HAS TO – affirmative form SheHeitMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTSHASTOIYOUWETHEYMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTSHAVETO
22 HAVE TO – interrogative form MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS?HeSheItHAVETODOESMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS?IYOUWETHEYHAVETODO
23 SHOULD ADVICE SUGGESTIONS CRITICISM EXPECTATIONS This film should be good.You should stop smoking.You shouldn’t have done it!
24 SHOULD – affirmative and negative forms + SHOULDSHOULD NOTSHOULDN´TMAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS
25 SHOULD – interrogative form MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTS?SHOULD
26 HAD BETTERGIVE ADVICEIt is stronger than should and means that if the person doesn’t follow the advice, s/he can have negative consequences.You had better not eat so much. The doctor told you that you are overweight.
27 HAD BETTER – affirmative and negative forms +HAD BETTER´D BETTER-HAD BETTER NOT´D BETTER NOTMAIN VERBIN THE BASE FORM+COMPLEMENTSATTENTION!IT´S NOT OFTEN USED IN THE INTERROGATIVE
28 OUGHT TO Advice or recommendations Assumption or expectation Strong probability(often with the idea that something is deserved)You ought to stop smoking.Jim ought to get the promotion.This stock ought to increase in value.Mark ought not drink so much
29 OUGHT TO – affirmative and negative forms +Ought to-Ought notMain verb in the base form+complementsATTENTION!NOT USED IN INTERROGATIVE
30 Shall we go to the movies? SUGGESTIONShall we go to the movies?ONLY USED IN INTERROGATIVE AND AFFIRMATIVE 1ST PERSON SINGULAR AND PLURAL