Presentation on theme: "InglêsModal Verbs Class – 13/08/2009 – Modal Verbs Apostila 1 - Pages 37, 38 Apostila 2 – Pages 39, 40 For more information on modal verbs and further."— Presentation transcript:
InglêsModal Verbs Class – 13/08/2009 – Modal Verbs Apostila 1 - Pages 37, 38 Apostila 2 – Pages 39, 40 For more information on modal verbs and further practice, check the related links: 1)http://www.englishpage.com/modals/modalintro.htmlhttp://www.englishpage.com/modals/modalintro.html 2)http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/verbmodal.htmhttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/verbmodal.htm
InglêsModal Verbs Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs – they are used with other main verbs. Modal verbs are can, could, will, would, may, might, shall, should, and must. Note these important rules: -Two modal verbs cannot be put together -(NOT He can will meet you tomorrow) - Modal verbs are followed by the infinitive without to -(NOT He must to meet you tomorrow) -Modals do not have third person –s -(NOT He cans meet you tomorrow) - Modals do not form tenses with –ing, -ed etc. -(NOT I’m sorry I canned not meet you yesterday) -Modals use inversion in questions (like the verb be), not do, does -(NOT Do can you meet me tomorrow? )
InglêsModal Verbs Modals show the speaker’s attitude or feelings about a situation. For example how probable or necessary something is, or that the speaker is offering or requesting something. The same modal verb can be used in different ways with different meanings – you only know from the situation.
InglêsModal Verbs We use will and won’t when we are certain about something in the future. Study this table of probability: 100% - certainty – will 95 – 100% deduction – must, can’t 80% - expectation – should 30% - 70% - uncertainty may, might, could 0% - certainty – won’t
InglêsModal Verbs To talk about ability or permission we use can and can’t (or cannot in formal writing) I can play the piano, but I can’t sing. Can I borrow your laptop?
InglêsModal Verbs Now, ask your friend if he or she can do these things :
InglêsModal Verbs Use can to ask for permission in the following situations: Example: You want to smoke in the cinema a) You want to sit down
InglêsModal Verbs b) You’d like another drink c) You need to talk to your boss in private d) You are anxious to see your friend’s photos
InglêsModal Verbs We sometimes use be able to instead of can, given it is a synonym for this modal. Be able to forms tenses. Example: Will you be able to help me move my furniture tomorrow? However, the past of the modal can is could. We also use it to ask for permission in a polite way, as you can see in the pictures below: Could I have the menu, please? Could you open your suitcase, please?
InglêsModal Verbs Ability Request Present – can Past – could Future – will be able to Very informal – can Informal – could
InglêsModal Verbs We use may, might and could for uncertainty, as well as for asking permission. Notice that like happens with the modal verbs can and could, may is also the present form of the modal might when it is being used for permission. Also, the verb might expresses a more remote possibility than may. Ex: I may not have time to finish tonight. (I don’t know) President Jones might win the next election. (It’s possible) I may/might have some news for you next week. (perhaps I will) He could be stuck in the traffic. (perhaps he is)
InglêsModal Verbs Ask permission to do things in the following situations. Use may in all of them. You are in the classroom and you want to go to the lavatory. You are watching an uninteresting TV program with your parents and you want to switch the channel. You have just had a bad cold and you want to eat an ice cream.
InglêsModal Verbs Use may to express possibility in all of these situations: Ex: Perhaps your uncle and aunt will stay with you for a few days next week. My uncle and my aunt may stay with me for a few days next week. a)Perhaps Betty won’ t come to your birthday party next weekend. b) Perhaps Mr. stone will give you a raise in your salary. c) Perhaps they will never find the cure for Aids. d) Perhaps they will cancel the show if it rains.
InglêsModal Verbs Use might to express remote possibility. Ex: Maybe on day Little Tommy might be the president. One day Little Tommy might be the next president. a) Maybe you will be a rich man in future. b) Maybe scientists will find life on another planet one day. c) Maybe Japan will win the Football World Cup next year. d) Maybe dishonest politicians will go to jail one of these days.
InglêsModal Verbs Permission Present – may Past – might Possibility Reasonable – (50%) - may Remote – (10%) – might
InglêsModal Verbs We use must or have to to explain that something is necessary. Ex: I must finish my homework before 8 p.m. I have to phone Jan at 9.p.m. In writing there is no real difference between must and have to. In speech there is a small difference: We use have to when the situation makes something necessary, for example because of officials rules: At our school we have to wear a uniform. Every player in a football team has to have a number. When the traffic lights are red, we have to stop.
InglêsModal Verbs We use must when the speaker personally feels that something is important. You really must stop working so hard and try to relax. You must be here by 8 a.m., or the bus will leave without you. In their negative forms, however, mustn’t and don’t have to have different meanings. Mustn't describes an action that is prohibited/forbidden. Ex: You mustn’t cross the road when the red light is showing. Don't have to describes an action that is not necessary – you have a choice. Ex: You don’t have to turn on the central heating. It’s automatic. Note: must not expresses prohibition, whereas need not expresses no necessity. Ex: You needn’t show them your ID to get into that nightclub.
InglêsModal Verbs We use should and shouldn’t to give an opinion about what is the best thing to do. When we speak to another person our opinion becomes advice. I think the police should arrest hooligans. I think you should talk to your teacher about it. We also use should when we expect that something will happen: They should arrive here at about 6.30.
InglêsModal Verbs We can use ought to and ought not to in the same way as should and shouldn’t. Ought to is not as common as should and is a little more formal. I think you ought to talk to your teacher about it. Note that with think in the negative, we use I don't think + should rather than the negative forms of should and ought to. I don’t think you should/ ought to go.
InglêsModal Verbs NecessityProhibitionNo necessity Advice Present – must Past – had to Must notNeed notShould not