2Can *be able to is also possible in the meaning of ability. I can play rugby. (I know how to)*I can visit my grandfather tomorrow (It is possible for me. I’m not busy.Can you help me? (Please help me)Can I leave early today? (Asking for permission)You can’t park here. (It’s not allowed to park here)He can’t be ill. I saw him at the gym yesterday. (sure)*be able to is also possible in the meaning of ability.
3What do they mean?My sister can cook meals from all kinds of world cuisine.He can’t be her uncle. She told me her uncle died years ago.I can pay you next week if you lend me some more money.You can’t go walk into a mosque with your shoes. Take them off.Can I open one of the windows to let the fresh air in?Can you please tell me how to go to the nearest post office?She can’t be an English teacher. She couldn’t talk to thetourist in the restaurant.Can we try a little bit before we buy this cheese?I can’t come to visit you tomorrow. I have an important meeting.Please, I need some help. Can you lend me your car just for tonight?
4may/might (possibility) We might have a picnic tomorrow, but it depends on the weather.I might not go to the party. I haven’t decided yet.I may go to the party, but I’m not sure.I may not have time to do everything today.May I use your phone? (Asking permission)May we leave early today? (Asking permission)You may go out if you don’t feel well. (giving permission)
5What do they mean? May I see your report, please? You may not use your phone in a test.May I talk to you after the class?He may come to class late. He missed the bus.My brother might visit us this summer.
6should/shouln’t (advice) I think you shouldn’t change your job.The government should do more for old people.I think you ought not to change your job.The government ought to do more for old people.
7My uncle ________ stop smoking. It really threatens his health. Ronnie _________ make his girlfriend so angry. She gets disappointed easily.Josh _________ miss any more classes, or else he will fail.You _________ obey what your father tells you. All in all, he is your father.shouldshouldn’tshouldn’tshould
8had better + V1 (strong advice) She had better stop smoking. It is too dangerous for him.I had better study for my English exam, or I will fail!You had better not touch that frog. It isvery poisonous.
9He __________ hurry up because he has only 5 minutes to catch the bus He __________ hurry up because he has only 5 minutes to catch the bus. He may be late for the test.Susan __________ leave home without an umbrella. It is rainy today, so she might get soaked.We _________ leave her alone. She is really disappointed. She may harm herself.
10have to*, don’t have to,*have got to is used in the same way as have to is
12You __________ pay cash. Credit card is also accepted. Children under 13 __________ buy a ticket. It is free for them.John __________ graduate from the university this term. Otherwise, she will be kicked off from the university. It is the 12th term of her.All graduates of high school __________ take the University Entrance Exam to be accepted to a university in Turkey.
13needn’t + V1 – don’t need to + V1 They express absence of necessity like “don’t have to”.You needn’t clean the room. I’ve already done.She needn’t take her jacket. It’s not cold outside.You don’t need to clean the room. I’ve already done.She doesn’t need to take her jacket. It’s not cold outside.
16mustn’t – have to – don’t have to Drivers ___________ turn left in this junction. It is forbidden.All passengers ___________ wear their seatbelts before we move.In a military zone you __________ take photos.My mother ___________ cook for us tonight because we will eat at a restaurant.
17mustn’thave todon’t have tohave tomustn’tdon’t have tohave todon’t have to
18Logical assumption:100% SureMy sister is very thin. She has been picky eater since her childhood. They must be out. There aren’t any lights on. She must have a lot of money. She drives a Porsche. (When you are sure something is true: use must) He may/might be sick today. She is not at the school. That man can’t be under 60. His hair all went gray.
19logical assumptionsMy brother_______ 18 years old. He took his driving license a couple of days ago. (be)He ________ really in dept. He is selling his house. (be)She ________ have a dog because she is buying dog food every week.Paul _______ be in a trouble. I haven’t seen him for ages.
20can could have to must might should 1.Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He__________ be exhaustedafter such a long flight. He__________prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.2.If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you__________walk downtown and explore the waterfront.3.Hiking the trail to the peak__________be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You__________research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent.
21can could have to must might should 4.When you have a small child in the house, you__________leave small objects lyingaround. Such objects__________be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.5.Dave:__________you hold your breath for more than a minute?Nathan: No, I can't.6.Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It__________have cost a fortune.7.Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water,they__________die.8.I__________speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But afterwe moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almosteverything I knew as a child. Now, I__________just say a few things in the language.9.The book is optional. My professor said we__________read it if we needed extracredit. But we__________read it if we don't want to.
22Will You-Could you-Would you? Used to request something from somebody.Will you please close the door?Could you help me to carry these bags, please?Would you please call me if the manager arrives?
23Suggestions: Shall I/we –Let’s+V1-Why don’t we…? Shall I print out a copy for you? Shall we spend this weekend out? Let’s go to a movie together. Let’s visit the famous museums in Gaziantep. Why don’t we eat out tonight? Why don’t we finish early?
24A request or suggestion? _________________to him? He will see what we need. (we/speak)_________________ me alone, please? I need some rest. (you/leave)_________________ the manager? I have to talk to him. (I/see)
25be allowed to (permission) You are allowed to spend your money on everything.Are we allowed to go out when the teacher is in.She is not allowed to leave her baby to another woman for 4 months.The students weren’t allowed to enter here two years ago, but now they are free to walk in.Next year I will be allowed to drive a car because I will be 18, and I will get a driving license.