Presentation on theme: "1) Challenges to the Romanovs, 1881-1905 B-AC-B Can you choose 1 of the key features of summary section 1, and explain how the Romanovs ruled in this period."— Presentation transcript:
1) Challenges to the Romanovs, 1881-1905 B-AC-B Can you choose 1 of the key features of summary section 1, and explain how the Romanovs ruled in this period. Look at the summary section 1. Can you describe the key features of Russia in this period. Summary Section 1 a)Repression b)Industrialisation c)1905 Revolution
1) Challenges to the Romanovs, 1881-1905 nature of the regime; economic and social changes; opposition parties; the 1905 revolution. Essay Questions: 1.Why did opposition to the Tsarist regime increase between 1881 and 1904? 2. How did the aims and agendas of the radical parties differ from one another? 3. In what ways did the Russo-Japanese War precipitate revolution in 1905?
TsarismAutocracyOkhrana MarxismConstitutional governmentRedemption Payments DumaSergei WittePobedonostev October ManifestoBloody SundayRusso-Japanese War
1881The Tsar agreed to the October Manifesto 1889Land Captains were created 1891Alexander III became Tsar 1894Nicholas II became Tsar 1898The Social Revolutionary party was formed 1901Bloody Sunday. The 1905 Revolution began 1904Major famine in Russia Jan 1905Russo-Japanese War began Oct 1905The Social Democratic Party was formed 1) Challenges to the Romanovs, 1881-1905 B-AC-B Put the events into the correct order and explain how the events in red caused major challenges to the Romanovs. Put the events into the correct order and define each one
1881Alexander III became Tsar 1889Land Captains were created 1891Major famine in Russia 1894Nicholas II became Tsar 1898The Social Democratic Party was formed 1901The Social Revolutionary party was formed 1904Russo-Japanese War began Jan 1905Bloody Sunday. The 1905 Revolution began Oct 1905The Tsar agreed to the October Manifesto 1) Challenges to the Romanovs, 1881-1905 B-AC-B Put the events into the correct order and explain how the events in red caused major challenges to the Romanovs. Put the events into the correct order and define each one
1881-1905 was a period of political repression. The Tsars suppressed groups, such as the Socialist Revolutionaries and the Social Democrats who were demanding reform. 1. Repression This period also saw major economic changes as Russia underwent rapid industrialisation. However, modernisation wasn’t very popular with ordinary people. 2. Industrialisation This period ends with the 1905 revolution – an attack on Tsarism. The Revolution ended when Nicholas II promised concessions in the October Manifesto. 3. 1905 Revolution
Write a paragraph defending Alexander IIIs policies Which policies do you find difficult to defend (explain your answer) Summarise Alexander IIIs system of government in no more than 25 words ‘Alexander was an unpopular yet effective ruler.’ To what extent do you agree with this statement? Repression– Nationality, Autocracy and Orthodoxy
Russian Empire 1881Russian Federation 2003 Alexander III and Pobedonostev promoted a policy of Russificiation. In 1885 Russian became the official language. Public office was closed to people who couldn’t speak it fluently. The rights of the Russian majority were put before the majority groups Alexander III didn’t distinguish between minority groups who were traditionally loyal to Tsarism and (e.g. Finns), and groups opposed to it (e.g. Poles and the Muslims of central Asia). This increased opposition to Tsarism from many different sections of society. Alexander III and Pobedonostev promoted a policy of Russificiation. In 1885 Russian became the official language. Public office was closed to people who couldn’t speak it fluently. The rights of the Russian majority were put before the majority groups Alexander III didn’t distinguish between minority groups who were traditionally loyal to Tsarism and (e.g. Finns), and groups opposed to it (e.g. Poles and the Muslims of central Asia). This increased opposition to Tsarism from many different sections of society. Russia was a huge country with millions of people of different cultures. Russificiation was introduced as a method of controlling them. Repression– Nationality, Autocracy and Orthodoxy
Alexander III didn’t attempt any reform at all. He was reactionary (against reform) and inflexible. For example: 1.After Alexander IIs assassination, his more liberal ministers were sacked. 2.Temporary regulations gave provisional governors and officials the power to imprison people without power, ban public meetings and exile thousands of offenders to Siberia 3.The Okrhana (secret police) restricted the press and monitored revolutionary and socialist groups. Repression– Nationality, Autocracy and Orthodoxy
Alexander was determined to keep up the tradition of Tsarist Autocracy Land captains could over rule the Zemstva (local council) and charge peasants for minor offences In 1889 elected Justices of the Peace were replaced by the land captains – aristocrats appointed by the Tsar Peasants felt that the Land Captains treated them as badly as they had been during the years of serfdom In 1890 the Tsar restricted the right to vote for the Zemstva in the countryside, and in 1892 the right to vote for the dumas in the towns was restricted in a similar way. This gave the landed gentry even more power. Alexander was heavily influenced by his tutor Pobedonostev Repression– Nationality, Autocracy and Orthodoxy
The rights and the privileges of the Russian Orthodox church were championed above those of other beliefs Primary schools came under church control Jews suffered the most under Russificiation Anti-Semitism was common in Russia and Jews were made a target by Alexander III Jewish people weren’t allowed to become doctors or lawyers Very few were admitted to universities Violent attacks called pogroms increased during the reign of Alexander III There were over 200 pogroms Repression– Nationality, Autocracy and Orthodoxy
Opposition to Tsarism – social and economic difficulties 1.The economic reforms carried out in this period strengthened the Russian economy. In 1881 Russia had the world’s 11 th largest economy. By 1914 it had the world’s 5 th largest 2.Industrialisation didn’t make for a happy society. The gap between rich and poor increased and society became divided between the countryside and the town. Read he cards showing 6 problems in urban and rural areas. Sort them under these headings and then explain how these problems increased social unrest In the countryside In the Towns
Opposition to Tsarism – political difficulties LiberalsSocialist RevolutionariesSocial Democrats The opposition parties didn't get very far… 1.Although many political parties emerged in Russia in the early 20 th century they were too small and infective to achieve their aims 2.There were major divisions between he parties which made them less effective at opposing the government 3.The political parties faced constant harassment and violence from the Okhrana The opposition parties didn't get very far… 1.Although many political parties emerged in Russia in the early 20 th century they were too small and infective to achieve their aims 2.There were major divisions between he parties which made them less effective at opposing the government 3.The political parties faced constant harassment and violence from the Okhrana Who supported these parties and what aims did they have?
The 1905 Revolution Did the events of 1905 strengthen or weaken Tsarism? Long-Term Causes Short-Term Causes Bloody Sunday 1905 Revolution The October Manifesto List 3 factors for each event or cause to show how each problem multiplied. Then answer the question above.
The 1905 Revolution Did the events of 1905 strengthen or weaken Tsarism? Some historians argue that the 1905 revolution, strengthened Nicholas’s position: 1.The army and the police remained loyal to the government. 2.The political parties were taken by surprise and didn’t coordinate an effective opposition to the Tsar. 3.Many revolutionary leaders were in exile and couldn’t capitalise on the unrest. The October Manifesto split the opposition to Tsarism The Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries remained hostile to the Tsar. The Liberals welcomed the Manifesto – it was a milestone towards the reform they wanted. Some Liberals wanted a full written constitution and became known as constitutional democrats (better known as the Kadets). One group felt the October Manifesto was final – they were known as ‘Octobrists’.
Why did opposition to the Tsarist regime increase between 1881 and 1904? What do I do? 1) Decide on three key factors – big causes 2) Write a brief intro: Respond to the question – do you agree with the statement What are the key factors? 3) Explain whether the factor in the question is important (Paragraph 1) 4) Explain what other factors are important (Paragraph 2 and 3) 5) Conclude (overall do you agree? What was the main factor?)
Exam Answers Now look at the exam answers Give each a mark and a target to improve
Most peasants were still paying redemption payments imposed in return for the land they were given when they became free The peasants now farmed smaller land holdings than they’d had before emancipation, The nobles kept the best land for themselves – leaving the peasants with poor soil Farming practices hadn’t evolved much since the middle ages – e.g. old fashioned crop rotation was still common Peasants couldn’t leave their village without permission of the Mir (the whole community), so they were really free still. Many town workers earned barely enough to survive from one week to the next The gap between rich and poor peasants grew. Richer peasants (kulaks) gained more land and ran local business Factory hours were not regulated by the state until Witte introduced an 11 ½ hour working day in 1897. However, this law was often ignored. Factories were supposed to be inspected regularly, but rules in health and safety were not followed. The rapid growth of towns meant that workers lived in overcrowded and insanitary tenements Health and education services were poor creating more social inequality. Life expectancy was under 30 years. Many peasants migrated to the towns to earn extra money when they weren’t needed for sowing and harvesting.
Tsarism – A form of government run by a Tsar. Autocracy – One person rules with absolute power. Okhrana – The Russian Secret Police Marxism – A set of theories put forward by Marx Constitutional government – A government based on an agreed set of rules Redemption Payments – Money owed to the government by the peasants for their land Duma – The Russian parliament Sergei Witte – Finance minister 1892-1903 Pobedonostev – Alexander III and Nicholas II’s tutor October Manifesto – The Tsar promised concessions to ease tensions of 1905 revolution Bloody Sunday - unarmed, peaceful demonstrators marching to present a petition to Tsar were gunned down by the Imperial Guard Russo-Japanese War – embarrassing defeat of Russian forces by supposedly weak country
Long-Term Causes Political parties were growing despite Nicholas’ efforts to suppress them There were huge pressures on food supplies and famines were common High taxes and redemption payments left peasants poor and desperate for land. Short-Term Causes In 1904 Russia and Japan were at war. Russia suffered a number of humiliating defeats – especially Port Arthur in January 1905 Bloody Sunday shocked many Russians and badly damaged the Tsar’s authority and prestige Bloody Sunday 9 th Jan 1905 Father Gapon led a peaceful march to the Winter Palace to present a petition to the Tsar. 150 000 workers attended. Gapon petitioned for: an end to the war with Japan; fair wages and an eight hour working day; and the election of a national parliament. Soldiers opened fire, killing hundreds of unarmed people. 1905 Revolution Half a million workers went on strike in protest at the massacre. By the end of the year it had risen to 2.7 million. The strikes affected the railways so food could not be delivered to the cities, The peasants illegally took land from the landowners National minorities engaged in widespread protests especially in the West of the Empire. The October Manifesto Nicholas announced in August the formation of the Duma but it had no power other than advising the Tsar In October strikes brought the country to a standstill Witte proposed new concessions, which the Tsar reluctantly agreed to. On the 17 th October, Nicholas published the October Manifesto.
The October Manifesto The manifesto promised… Freedom of speech, religion and free press. An elected Duma which had actual authority, laws issued by the Tsar needed approval from the Duma. In November a second manifesto was published. It promised to improve the peasants’ land bank and to abolish redemption payments within a year The October Manifesto worked and strikes were called off. Spontaneous demonstrations in favour of the Tsar were held in St. Petersburg The St. Petersburg Soviet was dissolved – this was a council (soviet) elected by factory workers and organised strikes and demonstrations. It was dominated by Mensheviks including Leon Trotsky. A December uprising in Moscow, led by the Bolsheviks, was easily crushed. The October Manifesto worked and strikes were called off. Spontaneous demonstrations in favour of the Tsar were held in St. Petersburg The St. Petersburg Soviet was dissolved – this was a council (soviet) elected by factory workers and organised strikes and demonstrations. It was dominated by Mensheviks including Leon Trotsky. A December uprising in Moscow, led by the Bolsheviks, was easily crushed.
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