Presentation on theme: "Russia: Industrialization to Bolshevism. Background Tsar Alexander II –Attempted to reform after Crimean War Ended serfdom Military reform Zemstvos."— Presentation transcript:
Background Tsar Alexander II –Attempted to reform after Crimean War Ended serfdom Military reform Zemstvos Judicial reform
Sergei Witte Alexander III –Political conservative –Encouraged industrialization of Russia Sergei Witte (finance minister) Protective tariffs Taxes Gold standard Heavy industry Textiles Transiberian Railroad
Russian Social Classes circa 1900 ~approximately 85% peasants Small industrial proletariat Landowning aristocracy Kulaks – landowning peasants Social Revolutionary Party – opposed industry; embraced rural life Constitutional Democratic Party - liberals
Vladimir Lenin Lenin –Rejected SRP’s traditionalism –Rejected the Social Dems call for industry –Criticized trade unionism as being too limited –Rejected mass democracy of voters –Favored a small, organized party –“Bolsheviks” vs. “Mensheviks” –Favored unity among peasants and proletariat
Causes - Revolution of 1905 Russia was only beginning to industrialize There was general discontentment among peasants Nicholas II was harsh, but ineffective. Russia unexpectedly lost in 1905 war w/ Japan.
War with Japan Russia Expected Victory In 1904/05 Russia and Japan fought for control of Korea and Manchuria The Tsar expected a quick victory Russia suffered defeats on Land and sea. Japan destroyed the Russian Navy Results Tsar becomes more unpopular Russia is humiliated Government seen to be weak and incompetent Conditions for the people get worse price rises food shortages and unemployment
1905 Revolution Forms of struggle: Demonstrations Strikes, many of them political Takeovers of farmland Armed revolts Mutinies in the armed forces Political self-organization of civil society –Creation of political parties – from Left to Right –Creation of labor unions, independent professional associations, etc. –Creation of “Soviets” as new bodies of democratic government, challenging the autocratic state
Results The government’s response Peace with Japan Repression Reforms, beginning with the Tsar’s October 1905 Manifesto, granting political freedoms and parliamentary elections By 1907, the revolution subsides But no viable new form of state-society relations has been created Stalemate –The Tsar is a reactionary, rejects democracy –The nobility is stuck in the old order –The capitalist class is too dependent on the state, too afraid to show initiative
Results The October Manifesto - promise of freedom of speech, right to form political parties Establish a Duma No new laws without consent of the Duma Broken Promises Voting system was unfair rich had more influence than the poor Duma had little influence over the Tsar and new laws First two Dumas were dismissed for demanding reforms Further changes introduced to excluded socialist
Why Did the Revolution Fail? Many disparate groups w/ different objectives Lack of organized leadership. Most strikes and naval mutinies were abandoned. Tsar did grant some concessions which some Russians accepted. Military was loyal to tsar and the military was used to arrest soviets.
Nicholas II Appoints Stolypin The Rule of Stolypin –Aim of stability –1. Repress the revolutionaries –2. Introduce reforms to improve living conditions –1911 - Stolypin assassinated
Stolypin 1. Great reduction in activities of the revolutionaries 2. Richer peasants (Kulaks) now run farms for profit 3. Kulaks now loyal to Tsar 4. Cities have more food 5. Conditions for some workers improve though many remain discontented. 1912/14 many strikes 6. Revolutionaries like Lenin learn to adopt new more tactics