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H.E.. Serfdom had almost disappeared in Western Europe by the 1700s Survived and spread to Russia Masters had almost total power of serfs “I heard….stories.

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Presentation on theme: "H.E.. Serfdom had almost disappeared in Western Europe by the 1700s Survived and spread to Russia Masters had almost total power of serfs “I heard….stories."— Presentation transcript:

1 H.E.

2 Serfdom had almost disappeared in Western Europe by the 1700s Survived and spread to Russia Masters had almost total power of serfs “I heard….stories of men and women torn from their families and their villages, and sold, or lost in gambling, or exchanged for a couple of hunting dogs, and then transported to some remote part of Russia to create a [master’s] new estate;… of children taken from their parents and sold to cruel masters” - Peter Kroptkin, Memories of a Revolutionist Reformers hoped to free Russia from autocratic rule, economic back wardness, and social injustice This had little success

3 By 1815 Russia was a great world power Since 1600s, explorers pushed the Russian frontier eastward across Siberia to the Pacific Peter and Catherine the Great added land to the Baltic and Black Seas Czars expanded into Central Asia European nations looked on the Russian colossus, or giant, with a mixture of wonder and misgiving Mass size gave it global interests and influence

4 Although Peter and Catherine tried Russia still became undeveloped Czars tried to modernize but resisted reforms that would undermine their absolute rule Russia fell further behind Western Europe in economic and social deveopelments Rigid social structure Middle class was to small to have much infuluence Majority of Russians were serfs

5 Most serfs were peasants others were servants, artisans, or soldiers forced into the czar's army Some sent serfs into factories to work but they took most of their pay As long as people served the whim of their masters, their economy would remain backward

6 Inherited the throne in 1801 Seemed open to liberal ideas Eased censorship Promoted education Talked about freeing the serfs When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, Alexander drew back from reform Feared losing the support of nobles He joined the conservative powers at the Congress of Vienna

7 Alexandar 1 died in 1825 Army officers led an uprising know as the Decembrist Revolt Demanded a constitution and other reforms New czar, Nicholas I, suppressed the Decembrists and cracked down on all dissent Banned books from Western Europe that might spread liberal ideas Only approved text books were allowed in schools If they were liberal people, they were judged insane and put in a mental hospital 150,000 were exiled to Siberia

8 Symbolized the motto, “orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationalism” Orthodoxy refers to the orthodox church and government Autocracy, was the absolute power of the state Nationalism involved respect for Russian traditions and suppression of non-Russian groups Realized Russia needed to modernize Issued new law that made economic reform Tried to limit power of landowners over serfs Before he died, he told his son. “I am Handling you command of the country in a Poor state.”

9 He came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War The war broke out after Russia tried to seize Ottoman lands along the Danube War ended in Russian defeat, revealed the country's backwardness He finally agreed to reforms In 1861 he issued a royal decree that required emancipation, freeing of the serfs Freedom brought problems Had to buy the land they worked on forever Many were too poor Not able to support a family Boosted the drive for further reform

10 Set up local government Responsible for roads repair, schools, and agriculture Elected assemblies called zemstvos Trial by jury Tried to reform the army Movement to liberate women also swept the urban centers of Russia They were denied of education so they fled and studied abroad Many came to support revolutionary goals

11 Peasants had freedom but no land Liberals wanted a constitution and an elected legislature Radicals demanded even more changes Czar was moving away reform to repression In the 1870’s socialists worked and lived among the peasants to promote reform and rebellion Little Success because the peasants didn’t understand what the socialists were telling them and often turned them over to police This failure caused some to begin terrorism Killed Alexander II

12 In response to his father’s death, Alexander III Increased power of the secret police, restored strict censorship and exiled critics to Siberia Insisted on one language (Russian) and one church (Russian Orthodox) Persecution of Russian Jews increased Limited the number of Jews who were allowed to study in universities and practice professions like law and medicine Forced Jews to live in certain restricted areas Encouraged violent mob attacks on Jews, beating and killing of Jews, and the looting and burning of Jew’s homes and stores (Police did nothing to stop the violence)

13 Railroads to connect iron and coal mines with factories Increased political and social problems Peasants left for cities to work in factories

14 War between Russia and Japan in 1904 Russians were defeated over and over Protesters filled the streets, workers went on strike for shorter hours and better hours, and liberals called for reforms to get ride of the inefficient government Bloody Sunday Left hundreds dead and wounded in the snow The people were promised freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly, union, and elected legislature New Prime Minister-Peter Stolypin Introduced land reforms, strengthened zemstvos and improved education

15 Colossus- Huge and menacing… ie RUSSIA in this Chapter Emancipation- Freedom of enslaved peoples—Serfs in Russia, or like Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation Duma- Russian elected Legislature Bloody Sunday- Peaceful demonstration against the crown in Russia, turned bloody when Russian troops opened fire on the crowd Russification- One Language One Church the basis for Russian discrimination Zemstov- Local governing bodies in Russia, like City councils here in the U.S. Pogrom- Mob attacks on Non-Russians in Russia, discrimination backed by the Government

16 Alexander II- Tsar of Russia from 1855-1881 was assassinated, he freed the Serfs in 1861 Peter Stolypin- Prime Minister appointed in 1906 to restore order, reforms were too little to late What revolt took place after the death of Alexander I of Russia? Decembrist Revolt What MANIFESTO did Nicholas II of Russia promise freedoms, and set up the Duma? October Manifesto Why did the revolution of 1905 break out in Russia? Bloody Sunday and harsh repression by the Tsar What did the revolution of 1905 lead to in RUSSIA? Basically minor reforms

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