4 Underground RailroadA network of escape routes that provided protection and transportation for slaved fleeing north to freedom.The term railroad referred to paths that African Americans traveled, either on foot or in wagonsUnderground means it was secret
5 Gag RuleThis law prohibited antislavery petitions from being read or acted upon in the house of Representatives for the next 8 years.
6 What tactics did the abolitionist movement use to achieve the emancipation of slaves? ProtestPolitical actionPublishingForming groups and societiesDeveloping a colonization program (Liberia)The Underground Railroad
7 Name 4 abolitionist leaders and describe their contributions to the movement.
8 William Lloyd Garrison Published a newspaperThe LiberatorDenounced moderationHe insisted on aggressively denouncing the institution of slaveryFounded American Antislavery Society
9 Frederick Douglas Great speaker and writer Started a newspaper The North StarOpposed violence
10 Grimke SistersInvolved women by speaking and writing pamphlets
11 Harriet Tubman She herself was an escaped slave Led many other slaves to freedomLed more than 300 slaves to freedomEarned the nickname “black Moses”
12 Why did divisions emerge within the abolitionist movement? Leaders disagreed over whether or not to employ illegal tacticsLike helping slaves escapeMany male members disagreed over whether or or not to allow women to play prominent roles within the movement
13 What groups resisted the efforts of abolitionists Northern merchantsFeared souring relations with the SouthWhite workers and labor leadersFeared job competitionMost southernersPublic officials in the southSouthern mailmen refused to deliver abolitionist literature
14 What types of resistance did they carry out? Held violent demonstrationsMurdered some abolitionist newspaper editorsLike Elijah P. LovejoyPassed the gag rule
15 Describe how geography affected the course of the Underground Railroad Led to safety in CanadaMississippi River provided a natural escape route northSwamps of the Atlantic Coast allowed slaves to hideAppalachian Mountains provided shelter
16 Describe how geography presented challenges to travelers along the routes Mississippi River was dangerous because slave hunters stalked the riverboat townsSwamps had dangers like poisonous snakesMountains presented barriers