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Religious Awakening CHAPTER 4, SECTION 1. Second Great Awakening  The revival of religious feeling in the U.S. during the 1800s was known as the Second.

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Presentation on theme: "Religious Awakening CHAPTER 4, SECTION 1. Second Great Awakening  The revival of religious feeling in the U.S. during the 1800s was known as the Second."— Presentation transcript:

1 Religious Awakening CHAPTER 4, SECTION 1

2 Second Great Awakening  The revival of religious feeling in the U.S. during the 1800s was known as the Second Great Awakening.  Many preachers believed that industrialization had caused immorality and wanted to correct this problem for the country’s future.  These preachers were known as revivalists, because they wanted to revive religion in the U.S.  The more emotional form of worship ( evangelical ) included preachers such as Charles Grandison Finney and Lyman Beecher.

3 New Religious Groups Form  Two major religious groups formed during this time period.  The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led by Joseph Smith, started in They are known as Mormons.  Some Puritans in New England believed that instead of a Trinity, God should be seen as a single entity. This group was called the Unitarians.

4 Discrimination Against Non-Protestants  The Second Great Awakening was Protestant- dominated. Those that weren’t faced discrimination.  Mormons lived in their own communities and had many practices that others frowned upon.  They owned land as a group and voted as a group, giving them both economic and political power.  Mormons were pushed westward until they reached Utah.  Catholics and Jews were also discriminated against.  Americans feared Catholics’ loyalty to the Pope ;  Their willingness to work for low wages threatened other workers;  Jews were prevented from holding public office in many states.

5 Utopias and Transcendentalism  Two new religious groups were more concerned with creating a more perfect society.  Utopian communities separated themselves from the rest of society and aspired to be perfect societies.  Shaker communities separated men and women and relied on crafts for money.  Transcendentalists developed a new way to look at God, humanity and nature.  They believed people should go beyond, or transcend, their senses to learn about the world.  Listen to nature and own consciences rather than religious doctrines.  Famous transcendentalist: Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.

6 Early Reform CHAPTER 4 SECTION 2

7 Reforming Education  Goals:  Create a tax-supported system of schools– public schools where all children could attend;  Expanding education would help make decisions in a democracy;  Promote economic growth by creating knowledgeable workers.  Major Leaders:  Horace Mann – Massachusetts senator; creator of the first state board of education.  Catharine Beecher and Emma Willard established schools for women.

8 Helping the Ill and Imprisoned  Mentally ill  Goal: Build hospitals that separated the mentally ill from prisoners.  Prisons  Goal: Reform prisons to make prisoners feel sorrow for their crimes.  Both reform movements were led by Dorothea Dix.

9 Alcohol  Industrialization brought about negative changes to society such as increased crime, sickness and poverty. Alcohol was seen as the root of these problems.  The temperance movement was meant to end alcohol abuse and the problems it caused.  Temperance= drinking in moderation.  Leader  Neal Dow  The temperance movement was mildly successful during the 1800s, passing some state laws to limit the sale of alcohol.

10 Reformation Part 2 CHAPTER 4, SECTIONS 3 AND 4

11 Slave Resistance  By 1830, there were 2 million slaves within the United States, primarily in the South.  Slaves often took comfort in their religion, finding hope during their difficult lives.  Some slaves resisted their oppression by running away or by fighting.  One of the most violent slave uprisings was by Nat Turner in  He and his group of slaves killed over 60 people before being captured.

12 The Abolition Movement  During the 1800s, a growing number of Americans wanted to end slavery on moral grounds.  This began the abolition movement.  Methods:  Antislavery publications, abolitionist societies, gave speeches.  Leaders:  William Lloyd Garrison ; publisher of The Liberator;  Frederick Douglass; former slave

13 Free African Americans  Once African Americans gained their freedom, they were still discriminated against.  Slaveholders, especially, were troubled by the presence of freedmen.  They believed the large population of freedmen encouraged those still enslaved to escape.  A group of slaveholders formed the American Colonization Society (ACS), whose goal was to encourage migration of freedmen back to Africa.  This led to the establishment of Liberia, a colony for freed slaves.

14 Working Against Abolition  Many Americans (not just in the South) resisted abolition for various reasons.  Slavery’s economic impact in both the South and to northern industry;  Desire to avoid competition for low-skilled jobs with free African Americans;  Belief to some that African Americans are naturally inferior to whites.

15 The Women’s Movement CHAPTER 4, SECTION 4

16 The Women’s Movement  In the early 1800s, women had very few rights.  Upon marriage, the property a woman owned became her husband’s.  Goal: achieve greater rights and opportunities for women.  Leaders: Sojourner Truth, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frederick Douglass  Women, who gained strength by working for other causes, realized they had very little rights themselves.

17 Seneca Falls Convention  In 1848, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a convention in Seneca Falls, New York.  A Declaration of Sentiments, outlining the aims of the convention was read during the convention.  The language was modeled after the Declaration of Independence.  The convention inspired many women, including Amelia Bloomer, who published a newspaper called The Lily.  Susan B. Anthony became a leader in the fight for women’s suffrage – the right to vote.


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