5BiStable simple analogy the energy function Voltage gain ofinverters is largerthan unity at unstable Point,a small voltage perturbationat the input of any of theinverters will be amplified,causing the operation pointto moveto one of the stable points.simple analogy the energy functionP ( x ) could be the potential energy of some one-dimensionalmechanical system. The gradient of P ( x ) is a “force”
6Bistable At V01 = V02 Unstable condition where gm = (gmN + gmP ) : All fourTransistor are in saturationDirectionis determinedby initialperturbationpolarity.Output Expectation(exponential!!!)
40Master-Slave Flip Flop (NOR) CLK is HIGH MASTER is enable. Slave is disable and retains its previous state.CLK is LOW is disconnected while input of slaves are simultaneously coupled to the output of the slaves.
52ReferencesMetastability Behavior of CMOS ASIC Flip-Flops in Theory and Test, JENS U. HORSTMANN, JSSC, FEB 1989.S-M. Kang and Y. Leblebici ,CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits: Analysis and Design,, 3rd edition