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Consonants RE 3030 September 28, 2009. Speech Sound Image courtesy of

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1 Consonants RE 3030 September 28, 2009

2 Speech Sound Image courtesy of Try producing a /p/ sound; a /f/ sound; /k/ sound; a /z/ sound; a /l/ sound. Can you tell which parts of your mouth are involved? Can you tell how they are pronounced? Is air stopped/obstructed in producing these sounds? Do you feel your vocal cords vibrating?

3 ConsonantsConsonants are classified primarily according to – place of articulation; place of articulation – manner of articulation; manner of articulation – voicing. voicing

4 Classification

5 Manner of Articulation* Stops occur when the air stream stops completely before leaving the vocal tract, e.g., the /p/ in pour and slap; Fricatives occur when the air stream is audibly disturbed but not stopped completely, e.g., /v/ in very and shove, the /ð/ in thy and bathe, the /s/ in soup and miss; Affricates start out as a stop but end up as a fricative, e.g., the /t ʃ / in lunch, the /d ʒ /in germ; Nasals occur when velum is lowered allowing the air stream to pass through the nasal cavity instead of the mouth, e.g., the /m/ in mind and sum, the /n/ in now and sign, and the /ŋ/ in sing; Liquids occur when the air stream flows continuously through the mouth with less obstruction than that of a fricative, e.g., the “lateral” liquid, /l/ in low and syllable; the “central” liquid is the /r/ in rough and chore. Glides occur when the air stream is unobstructed, producing an articulation that is vowel-like, but moves quickly to another articulation making it a consonant, e.g., the /w/ in witch and away. Adapted from Payne, T. (2007). English phonetics and phonology: English consonants. Paper presented at TESOL, Hanyang University.

6 Voice * States of the glottis: voiceless and voiced Determined by the action of the vocal folds in the larynx. If the vocal folds are held apart, the glottis is in a voiceless state If the vocal folds are held together, and allowed to vibrate, the glottis is in a voiced state. Do you feel vibration in your vocal cords? Place your fingers at the base of your throat – pronounce the sound [m], as in mat, and hold the sound; Now make the sound [p], as in pat. – Now say the sounds [p] and [b], as in bat, with your fingers at the base of the throat. Both sounds are made in basically the same way, but one is voiceless and one is voiced. *Adapted from

7 Place of articulation

8 Schwa The schwa / ə / is the vowel sound in unaccented syllables in words of more than one syllable. A schwa sound can be represented by any vowel. For example: The a is schwa in adept. The e is schwa in synthesis. The i is schwa in decimal. The o is schwa in harmony. The u is schwa in medium. The y is schwa in syringe.

9 Onset-rime * An onset is the part of the syllable that precedes the vowel of the syllable. A rime is the part of a syllable which consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it. Cat C-at *Adapted from

10 Onset-rime Courtesy of

11 Rime or Rhyme? Which pair is a rime pair? Which pair is a rhyme pair? Hear- here Ear- bear

12 Word families


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