2 Segmental Composition Speech sounds can be decomposed into a number of articulatory components.Combining these properties in different ways produces different speech sounds.properties= featuresFeatures show what sounds have in common & how they are related or not related.
3 Natural classSimilar sounds that are grouped together because they share some featuresExample [p, t, k] is a natural class of (alveolar stops)
4 Phonetic vs. Phonological Features Phonetic features: correspond to physical articulatory or acoustic eventsPhonological features:1- look beyond the individual segments at the sound system of language.2- features to characterize speech sounds in the languages of the world.3- some features are relevant only for consonants; others are only for vowels.
5 Phonetic vs. Phonological Features To characterize place of articulation: e.g. [palatal] & use +, or –Binary feature: a feature that has only two values (+ or -)Phonologists express true generalizations about phonological structure as economically as possible.
6 Phonological Features Major places of articulation:[+ anterior]: sounds produced no further back in the oral tract than the alveolar ridge[+ coronal]: sounds produced in the area bounded by the teeth & hard palate
7 Major Class Features Distinguish major classes of speech sounds: Consonants & vowels, sonorants & obstruents1- [+/- syllabic]: distinguish vowels from other sounds[+ syll]: function as the nucleus of a syllablee.g: [æ ] & [ɪ ] in [r æb ɪt][- syll]: don’t function as syllabic nuclei; [r] & [b] in [r æb ɪt]Sounds other than vowels might be syllabic (liquids & nasals) in [bʌ tn]
8 Major Class Features2- [+/- consonantal]: distinguish consonants (obstruents, liquids, & nasals) from vowels & glides.[+ cons]: involve oral stricture of close approximation ([p], [l], [t])[- cons]: with stricture more open than close approximation ([j], [e])
9 Major Class Features3- [+/ - sonorant]: distinguish vowels, glides, liquids, & nasals from oral stops, affricates & fricatives.[+ son]: produced with spontaneous voicing[- son] or (obstruents) spontaneous voicing is inhibited.Vowels, nasals & liquids are sonorantsStops, fricatives & affricates are obstruents.
11 Consonantal Features1- [+/ - voice]: consonants with vibrating vocal cords & those which are not[+ voi]: with airflow through the glottis; vocal cords close to vibrate, such as [l], [m], [n][- voi]: with vocal cords at rest; relevant to obstruents, such as [s], [p]Although vowels are typically voiced, we find voiceless vowels in languages like Mexican
12 Place Features[+/ - coronal]: distinguish sounds which involve the front of the tongue from others[+ cor]: articulated with the tongue tip or blade raised[j, l, r, n, t, d, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ , ʒ , tʃ , dʒ ][- cor] sounds which don’t involve the front of the tongue[w, m, ŋ , k, g, h, f, v, p, b]
13 Place Features[+/ - anterior]: distinguishes between sounds produced in the front of the mouth (labials, dentals & alveolars) and other sounds[+ ant]: produced at or in front of the alveolar ridge[l, r, n, m, t, d, θ, ð, s, z, f, v, p, b][- ant]: produced further back in the oral cavity than the alveolar ridge[j, w, ŋ, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, k, g, h]
15 Manner Features1- [+/ - continuant]: distinguishes between stops & other sounds[+ cont]: there is airflow through the oral cavity[j, w, l, r, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h, f, v][- cont]: in which the airflow is stopped in the oral cavity[n, m, ŋ, t, d, tʃ, dʒ, k, g, p, b]
16 Manner Features 2- [+/- nasal]: distinguish nasal & non-nasal sounds [+ nas]: produced with the velum lowered & air flow through the nasal cavity[n, m, ŋ ][- nas]: without airflow through nasal cavity[j, w, l, r, d, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, k, g, h, f, v, p, b]
17 Manner Features3- [+/- strident]: separates turbulent sounds from others[+ strid]: complex constriction resulting in noisy airflow[s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, f, v][- strid]: without such constriction[j, w, l, r, n, m, ŋ, t, d, θ, ð, k, g, h, p, b]
18 Manner Features 4- [+/- lateral]: separates [l] sounds from others [+ lat]: central oral obstruction & airflow passing over one or both sides of the tongue[l][- lat]: all other sounds
19 Manner Features5- [+/- delayed release]: distinguishes affricates from other [- cont] segments[+ del rel]: produced with stop closure in the oral cavity followed by frication at some point[tʃ, dʒ][- del rel]: without frication
20 Vocalic Features (vowels) 1- [high]:[+ hi]: body of the tongue raised above the neutral position in [ə]Vowels [iː, ɪ, ʊ, uː ]Consonants [j, k][- hi]: the body of the tongue is not raised
21 Vocalic Features 2- [low] [+ lo]: body of the tongue is lowered with respect to the neutral positionConsonants: [?], [h]Vowels: [ɒ, ɑː, ʌ, æ][- lo]: without such lowering
22 Vocalic Features 3- [back] [+ back]: body of the tongue is retracted from neutral positionConsonants: [k, g, ŋ]Vowels: [ʊ, uː, ɔ, oː, ɒ, ɑː][- back]: tongue is not retractedAll English consonants except the velars are [ -back]
23 Vocalic Features 4- [front] [+ front]: sounds for which the tongue is fronted from the neutral position[ɪ, iː, æ, e, ɜː][- front]: the tongue is not fronted.
24 Vocalic Features 5- [round] [+ rnd]: produced with rounded lips Consonants: [w]Vowels: [ʊ, uː, ɒ, ɔ, oː][- rnd]: produced with neutral or spread lips
26 Vocalic Features 7- [Advanced Tongue Root] for describing West African & other languages vowels (vowel harmony)words have vowels from certain sets & not a mixture of both sets[+ ATR]: the root of the tongue pushed forward[- ATR]: tongue root is not pushed forward.
27 Problems with the features There are some problems of these features; For example:Some combinations represents physical impossibility [+ hi, + lo]The system overgenerates; represents types not found in human languages.Using the feature [back] doesn’t represent languages with central vowels.