Presentation on theme: "Phonology, part 5: Features and Phonotactics"— Presentation transcript:
1Phonology, part 5: Features and Phonotactics November 5, 2012
2The Road AheadToday: we’ll wrap up the presentation of distinctive features…and also talk a bit about phonotactics and syllable structure.On Wednesday, we’ll wrap up phonology and do some more practice problems.The Phonology Homework will be due on the Wednesday after the break (November 14th).I’ll probably send it out on Wednesday evening.
3Distinctive FeaturesThe features used to describe natural classes of sounds in phonology are known as distinctive features.…because they distinguish between otherwise identical sounds.The distinctions made by features are (almost always) denoted by a [+] or [-] in front of the feature name.For instance, stops and fricatives are distinguished by the feature [continuant].[s] = [+continuant] (air flows steadily through mouth)[t] = [-continuant] (air does not flow steadily through mouth)(Note: nasals and affricates are also [-continuant])
4Hitting BottomDistinctive features are considered to be the basic building blocks of language.SentencesWordsMorphemesPhonemesFeaturesThe set of features is therefore universal.The distinctive features determine:What contrasts a sound makes with other sounds.What natural classes a sound belongs to.
5Feature MatricesAll of a phoneme’s feature specifications (+ or -) can be lumped together into a feature matrix.For example: [t] =Note: - is the default (unmarked) value.Also note: there are complete feature matrices for all English sounds on pages 88 and 89 of the textbook.
6Sub-Features, part 1Note: the place features LABIAL, CORONAL, DORSAL are special in that they are not preceded by either + or -(the textbook puts a ✓ before them)Some features only apply when a particular place feature is also part of a sound’s feature matrix.For instance: only CORONALS can be [strident].Also: [ANTERIOR] applies only to CORONALS.Is the sound at or in front of the alveolar ridge?Yes: [+anterior] = interdentals, alveolarsNo: [-anterior] = post-alveolars (=posterior)
7Sub-Features, part 2 A sub-feature for LABIAL is ROUND. = are the lips rounded?All rounded vowels are [LABIAL]…and all rounded vowels are [+round]However: LABIAL consonants in English are [-round]…with the exception of [w], which is [+round]
8Sub-Features, part 3 DORSAL has the following sub-features: [+back] vowels are (phonetically) back….[-back] vowels are (phonetically) front.Also: palatal consonants ([j]) are [-back];Velar consonants ([k], [g]) are [+back]2. [high] distinguishes high and non-high vowels3. [low] distinguishes low and non-low vowels(mid vowels are [-high], [-low])4. Tense vowels are [+tense], and lax vowels are [-tense]is [+reduced]
9More Major FeaturesNote: consonants and vowels are distinguished by [consonantal]Two major classes of consonants are distinguished by the feature [sonorant]:[+sonorant] segments resonate when they’re producedthey include vowels, glides, liquids and nasals[-sonorant] segments include:stops, fricatives and affricatesthese sounds obstruct the flow of air in the mouth= “obstruents”In English, only sonorants can be [+syllabic]
10Laryngeal FeaturesVoiced and voiceless segments are distinguished by [voice]Aspirated consonants are [+spread glottis]also: [h]And “glottalized” consonants are [+constricted glottis]this includes the “glottal stop”….but otherwise you can ignore this one.Finally: affricates are distinguished from fricatives by [delayed release]Affricates = [+delayed release]Fricatives = [-delayed release]
11Just for fun: Voice Quality There are three primary types of vocal fold vibration:modalvocal folds lightly adducted; flow of air causes periodic opening and closing of foldsbreathyvocal folds slightly apart; flow of air makes folds “wave” in the windBreathy voice is [+voice], [+spread glottis]3. creakyvocal folds tensely adducted; low airflow causes irregular, low frequency voicingCreaky voice is [+voice], [+constricted glottis]
12Random Feature Fun Facts [nasal] distinguishes oral from nasal segments[m], [n], [ŋ] = [+nasal][lateral] distinguishes lateral and central segmentsBasically: [l]Here’s an odd but important fact:Glides ([w], [j]) and Glottal consonants ([h], [ʔ]) are [-consonantal], just like vowels…but they are [-syllabic]Also keep in mind: [r] is [-anterior]
13The point of it allPhonological rules can (and should) always be expressed in terms of distinctive features.For instance, voicing assimilation (for English plurals):[+voice] [-voice] / [-voice] ____[+continuant][CORONAL][+strident]On Wednesday, we’ll try to work through a few more practice problems where we’ll express the answers in this (formal) fashion…