Mechanical System- Common types 1.Central Forced air (Furnace/fan blower /condenser & compressors; ducts; registers/diffusers) Heat Pump – Heat & Cooling within One unit Most Common type of Heating/Cooling* takes heat out of inside air (cooling) or takes heat out of outside air to heat bldg. 2.Hydronic Hot Water system (Boilers/pipes supply hot water to Radiators/Baseboards/or tube arrays below floor – YOUR TERMINAL UNITS – RADIANT Type Heat exchange) 3.Radiant (Control surface temp. of heating panel or Floor at the heat source Uniform heat/reduced air movement) use Electricity to heat Coils under floor or Piped hot (or cold) water to radiate heat
Forced Air Furnace heat house thru convection Two part system : central heating device-Furnace + distribution network-Ducts Fan blows heated air from the heat exchanger into supply Plenum smaller branch ducts tap into plenum air supply flows to Diffusers (in ceiling or floor registers). Air return grills centrally located picks up return air and carries it back to furnace via return duct into a return air plenum Gas Furnaces have exterior air intake and exhaust for the combustion chamber
Heat pump Heat pump extracts heat from space at low temp & discharges it to another space at a higher temp 2 heat exchangers, a compressor & expansion valve & interconnecting pipes filled with refrigerant. Reversing the direction of the refrig. Flow system can either heat or Cool Compressor sits outside the house on a concrete pad feeding the chilled refrig. to fan coil units
Condition the air using Nature : Cross ventilation (open windows) Stack effect (heat rises so remove it from Roof area/vent opening skylights) Ceiling fans (or whole house fan work With stack effect) Block solar heat gain (overhangs & low E insulated glass) Heat-storing (like concrete /masonry absorb heat & release heat slowly
Mechanical System- Forced CONDITIONED Air Furnace feed heated air through ducts & deliver it to registers(or diffusers) Return air to system through return grills separtated from diffuser.
Heat pump hooked up to furnace with thermostat Zones Provide Flexibility/ temperature reading.
Mechanical System- Zones Provide Flexibility/Efficiency – Control temperature of Areas (or rooms) individually with thermostats and Dampers Thermostats The control for Heating & Cooling Should be centrally located in zoned area or house to give an average temperature reading.
Mechanical symbols in a legend on the dwg. 1. s.
... sewage disposal is life safety issue. Waste lines… Lic. Plumber installs system in accordance with specs and local codes...for Houses pipe layout (DWGS.) are not required as fixtures & fittings are located on plans.... Riser diagrams are! For inspector to see adequate connections and pipe sizes
DRAIN PIPINGSTACKSHOUSE & SEWER DRAINS TRAPSVENT STACKS & PIPES Building Drain Sewer Line
... sewage disposal P-trap & Air-vent for waste disposal system to work Slope of waste lines ¼” : 1’ Vent Through Roof VTR VTR
Plum bing 3 stage s of constr uction 1. Se rvice entr ance (prio r to FND. Con cret e pour ) 2. Ro ugh- in plum bing (pipi ng/d rains - Insp ecte d) 3. Fi nish ed plum bing insta ll fixtur es & conn ectio ns (follo w GYP. Wall s) Plumbing hidden in the walls... WASTE STACK
Plumbing 3 stages of construction 1. Service entrance (prior to FND. Concrete pour) 2. Rough-in plumbing(piping/drains - Inspected) 3. Finished plumbing install fixtures & connections (follow GYP. Walls) Plumbing hidden in the walls...
Lights and outlets in kitchen & bath areas...similarities from house to house GFCI – ground fault circuit interrupter (outlet for damp locations - near sinks) GFCI
Outlets & Switches Interior Elevations …regulated by NEC code... walk through the house at the front door looking at outlets and light switches
code regulates min. number of outlets placed... NEC National Electrical Code...work performed by lic. Electrician for occupancy permit
. Electrical A ampere =rate of flow V voltage = force ampere move by W wattage = how much elec. Is used or Power use A x V = W
. Electrical Amps used to rate appliances Volts varying pressure at service panel (120/240V typ. for USA house) Amps to size circuit breaker (Kwh use is elec. measured at meter (or 1000 watt hours = 1 Kwh)