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Nazi Germany: Treaty of Versailles Munich Conference

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Presentation on theme: "Nazi Germany: Treaty of Versailles Munich Conference"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nazi Germany: 1933-1945 Treaty of Versailles Munich Conference
Rhineland Austria – Anschluss -1938 Sudetenland - Czech Czech Refusal – Threat of War Munich Conference September, 1938 France, Great Britain, Germany Appeasement: Sudetenland give to Germany Chamberlain and Churchill

2 German Expansion


4 Nazi Aggression Continues
Czechoslovakia Demand for Danzig Germany City prior to WWI European Response Great Britain & France Pledge to defend Poland Nonaggression Pact Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Germany and Soviet Union August, 1939 Secret Agreement - Poland


6 Word War II: 1939 Invasion of Poland War Declared September 1, 1939
German Pre-text Blitzkrieg “Lightening War” War Declared Allies: Great Britain & France September 3, 1939

7 Blitzkrieg in Poland Results Phony War Polish Defenses Overwhelmed
Danzig falls on Sept. 7 Warsaw Capitulates Sept. 28 Opposition Ends on Oct. 6 65,000 Polish Troops Killed 100,000s Wounded/Captured Phony War

8 German Conquests Grow British & French Mobilize German Conquests
Denmark – April 1940 Norway – April 1940 Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands – May 1940 Churchill Prime Minister May 10, 1940 France Threatened

9 France & the Maginot Line
French Defense Maginot Line Static Defense Hinges on Luxembourg & Belgium Fort Eban Emael – Belgium French Invasion May 10 – May 22, 1940 Advance through Ardennes Bypass Maginot Line British Expeditionary Force

10 Maginot Line


12 Rescue at Dunkirk May 26 - June 3, 1940 Operation Dynamo Great Britain
British and French Forces Halt of German Panzers Role of Luftwaffe Operation Dynamo Rescue of Allied Forces 200,000 British troops 140,000 French troops Great Britain Last European Democracy

13 Dunkirk "We must be very careful not to assign to this deliverance the attributes of a victory. Wars are not won by evacuations.“ Winston Churchill

14 France Defeated

15 Occupied France Occupied France Vichy France Free French
Marshall Petain Collaboration French Navy French Resistance Free French Eventually 400,000 General De Gaulle

16 De Gaulle and Petain

17 The German Reich: 1940

18 The Battle of Britain July 10 – Oct. 31, 1940 Prelude to Russia
Operation Sea Lion Planned Invasion of Great Britain Sea-based Invasion Control of English Channel Airpower Luftwaffe & RAF Air Supremacy

19 Battle of Britain Battle for Air Supremacy Luftwaffe Great Britain
Over Great Britain Over English Channel Luftwaffe Herman Goering Air Attacks & Bombing The “Blitz” – Cities Great Britain Role of RADAR Role of RAF Retaining Pilots

20 Battle of Britain “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” Winston Churchill

21 The “Blitz” 60,000 Killed ,000 Injured 2 Million Homes Destroyed

22 America’s Response Disarmament after WWI Depression
1939 – 18th in Military Power Depression Avoidance of European Conflicts Opposition to Germany Fascism Anti-Semitism German Aggression Awe at Germany Charles Lindbergh Joseph Kennedy


24 “The Arsenal of Democracy”
Roosevelt Administration “Cash and Carry” 1939 50 Destroyers 99-Year Naval Leases Election of 1940 Roosevelt vs. Willkie Isolationist Campaign Lend-Lease Act 7 Billion in Weapons & Supplies Extension to Soviet Union Barbarossa: Sept. 22, 1941

25 Battle of the Atlantic German Strategy Initial Success
Cut off British Supplies Attack All Shipping “Wolfpacks” Initial Success 200 Ships Sunk – June 1940 Allied Strategies Convoy System “Escorts” Intelligence Ship Production

26 Battle of the Atlantic Allied Cost of Battle German Cost of Battle
30,000 Merchant Seamen 2,200 Merchant Ships 100 Allied Naval Vessels Over 600 Allied Aircraft 3 Million Tons of Shipping German Cost of Battle 510 U-Boats (2/3rds) 18,000 U-Boat Men

27 U-505

28 The Atlantic Charter August 1941 American Neutrality Newfoundland
Churchill Roosevelt War Aims Self-Determination Peace Europe First Strategy

29 Japanese in the Pacific
Japanese Expansion Natural Resources China and Manchuria Nationalism “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” Tripartite Pact September 26, 1940 Germany, Japan, Italy Axis Nations Role of Military Role or Emperor

30 America and Japan Japanese Seizure of French Indochina
American Response Free Japanese Assets Block Sale of Oil and Iron Demand Evacuation of China and Indochina Japanese Response U.S. as Threat in Pacific Diplomacy Eliminate U.S. Pacific Fleet

31 Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941 Failed Negotiations No Declaration of War
Admiral Yamamoto’s Plan Surprise Attack Shallow Running Torpedoes Midget Submarines Destroy Pacific Fleet Give Japan Time Break American Will Attack on the Philippines

32 Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941

33 Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941

34 Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941

35 Pearl Harbor: Results U.S. Losses U.S. Reaction Declaration of War
18 Ships Sunk or Damaged 170 Aircraft Destroyed 3,700 Casualties U.S. Reaction Panic on East Coast Anger Declaration of War December 8, 1941 “Will live in infamy”

36 Japanese Expansion December 8, 1941 December 10 December 11
Philippines Attacked December 10 Guam Attacked December 11 Wake Island Landing December 12 Luzon Landing December 13 Hong Kong

37 Fall of the Philippines
22,000 American Troops Lack of Supplies Fighting Retreat to Corregidor Recall of Gen. McArthur March 1942 “I shall return” U.S. Surrender April 10, 1942 General Wainwright 11,000 U.S. Troops

38 Bataan Death March Bushido Geneva Convention Over 600 Deaths
70,000 Prisoners 10,000 Deaths Camp O’Donnel Cabanatuan

39 America’s Response Striking Back at Japan Doolittle's Raiders
American Morale Logistical Problems Doolittle's Raiders 80 Men 16 B-25 Bombers Losses Morale Boost

40 Doolittle Raid: April, 1942

41 The Home Front Mobilization 1940 Selective Training & Service Act
1st Peacetime Draft 15 Million Americans Serve Segregation

42 Wartime Economy Manufacturing Citizens Arsenal of Democracy
Factory Jobs – Pay North & Midwest War Production Board Office of War Mobilization Citizens Scrap Drives Rationing Office of War Information Taxes – Middle & Lower Classes War Bonds





47 The War in Europe & Africa

48 A Desperate Situation Late 1941 Post Pearl Harbor Soviet Union & China
Battle of the Atlantic Nazi Advances: Greece Yugoslavia Soviet Union North Africa Post Pearl Harbor Churchill & Roosevelt Reaffirm Atlantic Charter Germany 1st Soviet Union & China Join Allies in 1942

49 Soviet Union and China

50 Taking the War to Germany
1942 Battle of the Atlantic Long-Range Bombing Night – RAF – Cities Day – AAF – Factories Ground Offensive Soviet Needs Allied Plans Where & When? France North Africa

51 3.4 Million Tons of Bombs 12,000 Heavy Bombers Lost Over 100,000 Killed

52 The Memphis Belle

53 North Africa The Suez Canal Sept. 1940 Italian forces attack Egypt
British counter General Montgomery “Desert Rats” German Reinforcement Afrika Corps General Erwin Rommel “The Desert Fox” Battle of El Alamein Operation TORCH Nov. 8, 1942 Afrika Corps Defeated


55 TORCH – Nov., 1942

56 HUSKY – July, 1943 Invasion of Sicily Invasion of Italy
“Soft Underbelly of Europe” “Friendly” Losses General George Patton Invasion of Italy September, 1943 Italian Surrender German Reaction Rescue of Mussolini German Occupation Anzio – January, 1944

57 D-Day: Operation Overlord
June 6, 1944 Allied Invasion of Europe Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower Supreme Allied Commander 23,000 Paratroopers 130,000 Landing Troops 195,000 Naval Support 2,000,000 Total Invasion Force 9000 Casualties – 3000 KIA


59 Battle of the Bulge December 16, 1944 Bastogne 25 German Divisions
“Last Ditch” Effort German Push to the Coast 77,000 American Casualties Bastogne 101st Airborne General McAullife “Nuts”

60 Battle of the Bulge

61 VE Day May 8, 1945 Dresden, Feb. 1945 Operation Varsity Berlin
Crossing the Rhine Berlin America or Soviet Union Soviet Advance to Berlin Surrender Hitler’s Suicide The Holocaust Rebuilding The “Cold War”


63 The Holocaust

64 The Holocaust

65 The Holocaust

66 The Pacific Theater Fighting in the Pacific Breaking Japanese Code
Admiral Chester Nimitz Commander of U.S. Navy General Douglas McArthur Command of Troops Breaking Japanese Code Battle of the Coral Sea Loss of USS Lexington Battle of Midway June 3-6, 1943 4 Japanese Carriers Lost


68 Island-Hopping Strategy Islands Air Fields – Bombing Submarines
Guadalcanal New Guinea Gilbert Mariana Marshall Air Fields – Bombing Submarines



71 Advance in the Pacific Battle of Leyte Gulf Island-Hopping Kamikazes
October 1944 Philippines McArthur’s Return Island-Hopping Okinawa Saipan Iwo Jima Kamikazes



74 Manhattan Project

75 Roosevelt’s Death Franklin D. Roosevelt Last Days President Truman
Elected to Four Terms Vice-President Harry S. Truman Last Days Yalta Conference – Feb. 1945 April 12, 1945 Warm Springs, Arkansas President Truman

76 Hiroshima & Nagasaki


78 VJ Day August 15, 1945

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