5Battle of the Atlantic1939 – 1945 (Jan – July 1943 were decisive)German U-Boats were sinking unprotected U.S. and other Allies' merchant shipsAllies began using convoys to protect shipsThe Allies also used a sonar system to detect German U-BoatsThe Germans were very successful in the beginning, but by mid , the Allies had the upper hand
6"The Battle of the Atlantic was the only thing that really frightened me" - Winston Churchill.
7Battle of Stalingrad (June 1941 – January 31, 1943) Germans violated nonaggression pact with Soviet Union and attackedHitler hoped to captured Soviet oil fieldsGermans nearly won (controlled 9/10 of the city)Winter of 1943 hit
8Battle of Stalingrad cont… Hitler forced Germans to stay putSoviets used to their advantage and wonSoviets lost 1,100,000 people in this battleTurning point in WWIIFrom that point on, Soviet army began to move westward towards Germany
10The Battle for Stalingrad was fought during the winter of 1942 to 1943. Stalingrad was an important target as it was Russia’s centre of communications in the south as well as being a centre for manufacturing.
13War in North Africa and Italy Italian and British forces battled for control of North Africa.The Suez Canal and the oil fields of the Middle East were essential to the British war effortAfrika Korps led by Erwin RommelPushed British back into EgyptTraded blows for two years1942—Battle of El AlameinBritish victory under Gen. Bernard MontgomeryAxis power lessened in North AfricaBack-and-forth fightingSoviets wanted European frontInvasion of western North AfricaDwight D. Eisenhower led troopsRommel caught between forces in east and westSupply problems worsenedMay 1943—surrendered to AlliesAmericans join the battleNearly 250,000 Axis soldiers taken prisoner; with surrender, all of North Africa in Allied hands
18The North Africa Campaign: The Battle of El Alamein, 1942 Gen. Ernst Rommel, The “Desert Fox”Gen. Bernard Law Montgomery (“Monty”)
19Commander of the Nazi forces in North Africa The Panzer IV was the mainstayof the Afrika Corpsand were needed in greatnumbers in theWestern DesertErwin RommelCommander of the Nazi forces in North Africa
20North African Campaign Operation TorchPurposes:Drive Axis powers out of North Africa and Middle EastDivert German forces from Russian FrontStrategy: Sandwich Afrikan Corp between British in East and Allied forces (including US) in West
21The Italian Campaign [“Operation Torch”] : Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov May 1943George S. Patton leads American troopsGermans trapped in Tunisia - surrender over 275,000 troops.
22Operation "Husky": Allied forces invade Sicily, Italy. July - August 1943,Operation "Husky": Allied forces invade Sicily, Italy.This Operation was the greatest Airborne-Amphibious Operation of WWII until D-DAY3,000 ships and landing-craft with 160,000 men(8 Divisions), 14,000 vehicles, 600 tanks and 1800 guns.Operation continues in Sicily and Italy
23Operation Husky Invasion of Italy First Allied attacks on Monte Cassino
30The fight for the Pacific Battle Of MidwayThe fight for the Pacific
31BATTLE OF MIDWAY, a decisive naval battle of World War BATTLE OF MIDWAY, a decisive naval battle of World War. This victory by the United States over Japan in June 1942 ended the Japanese advance in the Pacific Ocean.
32American intelligence intercepted Japanese plans The Americans sent their entire carrier force,The Americans succeeded in sinking four Japanese carriers,This was the turning point in the Pacific War.
33Yamamoto erred in dividing his force of more than 160 vessels. The U.S. commander, Adm. Chester Nimitz, with 76 ships