4Philosophical Differences - Philosophical differences between the Soviet Union and the United States reached back to the 1920s.Soviet Union: communism, totalitarian dictatorshipUnited States: free-enterprise capitalism, republic1917 WWI – Fall of the Russian Czar and beginning of Communism. After the War, American are afraid of Communist and call everyone thought to be anti- American “A Red”… 1st Red Scare – Palmer RaidsSoviets believed communism was superior to Capitalism
5Allies during the war, but not truly friends World War II ConflictsAllies during the war, but not truly friendsSoviets wanted British and Americans to open a second European front earlier in the war.U.S. atomic bomb plans worried Soviet Union.We did not share our secrets regarding the atomic bomb and in fact surprised Stalin when we dropped it.
6The United States resisted Soviet expansion. Postwar ConflictsThe Soviet Union refused to let Eastern Europe hold elections as promised at Yalta.The United States resisted Soviet expansion.Soviet Union with help (force) the establishment of Communist Gov’t throughout Eastern Europe.
7The Iron CurtainStalin wanted to retain political and economic control over Eastern Europe.The Soviets managed to install Communist governments throughout Eastern Europe.Stalin outlawed political parties or newspapers that opposed the Communists.The Soviets jailed or killed some political opponents.The Soviets rigged elections to ensure the success of Communists.1956 Hungary attempted to Revolt. Crushed by the Soviets – Leaders killed.
8Iron CurtainWinston Churchill’s term for the extension of Communist control over Eastern Europe.Iron Curtain Blocks truth and freedom
9Iron Curtain was blocking out truth and freedom The term reflected Churchill’s belief that communism had created a sharp division in Europe.Harry S. Truman – “Communism is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. “it relies upon terror and oppression a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. I believe it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure.”
10Soviet Views of the Iron Curtain Stalin believed that the Iron Curtain was necessary to protect the Soviet Union from western attacks.Stalin used Churchill’s words to help persuade his people that the United States and Great Britain were their enemies.He also used this as an excuse to rebuild the military.Communism won’t work if people are fleeing.
11How did the United States respond to Soviet actions in Europe?
12Containment George F. Kennan created a policy known as containment. This policy stated that the United States should resist Soviet attempts to expand its power.Containment included economic aid, sanctions, and military force.Goal – Keep communism within it’s borders (current territories) through diplomatic, economic and military actions.
13Truman Doctrine Truman Doctrine - 1947 Said that the United States would help people fight against oppressorsTruman wanted to send aid to Greece and Turkey to help them fight Soviet pressure.Congress agreed to send millions of dollars to Greece and Turkey.$400 mil sent in emergency aid
15Marshall Plan An aid program to rebuild the economies of European countries to create stable conditions for democracies 17 countries received $13.4 billion dollars in aid. Helped build strong political support in Western EuropeNamed after George C Marshal – Secretary of State – Really another of Truman’s PlansAfter WWII – Winner should help everyone recover – Even the losers! No more spoils of War!!Billions of $$ worth of supplies machinery & food were sent to Europe lessens the appeal of communism.Truman knew the hearts of people torn by war –Civil War the South – long hatredGermany WWI – leads to WWII
16Does this Cartoon apply today? The plan encouraged Europeans to use American Aid and their own brains and know how to get back on their feet. It worked prosperity returned and Europe began buying LOTS of American Goods!
17Crisis in BerlinWith the start of the Cold War, it became clear that the Soviets planned to keep their German zone under Communist control.British, Americans, and French – attempt to set up united democratic governments in their three zones of occupation – Including their Berlin Zones!The western zone eventually became known as the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany.
18Soviets Bloc TrafficIn June 1948 the Soviets announced that they would block any road, rail, or river traffic into West Berlin.West Berlin’s residents were cut off from food, coal, and other products.West Berlin was not completely cutoff because it had airstrips.
23NATOIn 1949 the U.S. and 6 other nations joined Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the U.K. to form NATO.An armed attack against one would be considered an attack against all.Today, 26 countries belong to NATO.
27Cold War Spreads to East Asia Communist ChinaCommunists in China had gained nearly full control of the country.The Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek fled to TaiwanChina was in the hands of the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong.Americans worried that China increased the Communist threat to the United States.
28Domino TheoryBelief that if one country fell to communism neighboring countries would likely fall as well.
29Korea before the WarAfter World War II, Japanese-occupied Korea was temporarily divided into northern and southern parts.The Soviet Union controlled Korea north of the 38th parallel. The United States would be in charge of Korea south of the 38th parallel.The Soviet Union established a communist government in North Korea. North Korea called itself the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Its first leader was Kim Il Sung.In South Korea, the United States promoted a democratic system. The Republic of Korea was led by president Syngman Rhee.
30The Start of the Korean War North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950.Most leaders in the United States were surprised by this attack.American troops stationed in South Korea since WW II had recently completed their withdrawal.The United States was not well prepared to fight in Korea; however, the decision to fight was made quickly.Truman decided that the United States would take a stand against Communist aggression in Korea.The United Nations Security Council voted unanimously in favor of the use of force in Korea.
31The Start of the Korean War Role of the United StatesSouth Korea was where the United States had to take a stand against Communist aggression.Truman ordered American naval and air forces to support Korean ground troops.Truman asked the United Nations to approve the use of force to stop the North Korean invasion.
32Role of the United Nations The troops sent to Korea were to be a United Nations force.Instead of calling this a war, the whole effort was referred to as a UN police action.
33The Inchon Landing - UN forces made an amphibious landing behind North Korean lines at the port city of Inchon. MacArthur’s surprise attack worked beautifully. The September 1950 invasion at Inchon was a key victory for UN forces.
34General MacArthur Is Fired MacArthur said that the UN faced a choice between defeat by the Chinese or a major war with them.He wanted to expand the war by bombing the Chinese mainland, perhaps even with atomic weapons.Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway stopped the Chinese onslaught and pushed them back to the 38th parallel—without needing to expand the war or use atomic weapons.MacArthur disagreed with President Truman about the direction of the fighting and challenged the authority of the president.Truman fired MacArthur.Many Americans were outraged at the firing of MacArthur.
35Fighting Ends in Korea Negotiating for Peace In July 1951 peace talks began.One major obstacle was the location of the boundary between the Koreas.Meanwhile battles such as Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge continued, inflicting heavy casualties on both sides.In October 1951 peace talks stalled over prisoners of war.Negotiators in Panmunjom continued to argue over the details of a peace agreement throughout 1952.
36Events of 1953In 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower—who promised to end the war—was elected president.Fighting remained deadly—in the final two months of the war, UN forces lost 57,000 men and the Communists lost 100,000.An armistice agreement was finally reached on July 27, 1953.The Korean War left the map of Korea looking much as it had in 1950.The human costs were huge.
37The Growing Fear of Communism Soviet Atomic WeaponsIn September 1949 Truman announced that the Soviet Union had detonated an atomic bomb.This was a shock to the nation.Truman began to strengthen the nation’s military against a possible Soviet nuclear threat.
38Arms RaceUS and Soviet Union (USSR) – end up in a major arms race to see who could have the most weapons and technology.
39SputnikFirst artificial satellite to orbit Earth, launched by the Soviet Union in 1957.
40Communism in the United States The House Un-American Activities Committee investigated the full range of radical groups in the United States, including Fascists and Communists.
41Fighting Communism at Home Truman created a plan to investigate all federal employees. Those found to be disloyal to the United States were barred from federal employment.The Smith Act made it a crime to call for the overthrow of the U.S. government or belong to an organization that did so.The McCarran Act limited the rights of Communist organizations.Several spy cases in the late 1940s fueled fears of communism
42Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Husband and wife convicted and executed in 1953 for passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union; their guilt is still debated.
43Investigating Communism – The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) explored the possible Communist influence in the American film industry.The Hollywood Ten refused to answer HUAC questions about their beliefs or those of their colleagues.Many others in Hollywood did testify, for if they didn’t their names were placed on a blacklist.
44Joseph McCarthy and the Second Red Scare Joseph McCarthy was a senator who claimed that there were 205 known Communists working for the U.S. Department of State.McCarthy’s claims were rarely backed up with any evidence, but this didn’t stop him from gaining a reputation as being the nation’s top Communist fighter.A political cartoonist dubbed McCarthy’s tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges McCarthyism.McCarthyism spread beyond the Senate into other branches of government, into universities, into labor unions, and into private businesses.
45McCarthy’s FallMcCarthy continued his campaign from the Senate but became increasingly wild in his accusations.In 1952 he began to go after fellow Republicans.In 1954 he attacked the U.S. Army, claiming that it was protecting Communists.The public came to view McCarthy’s tactics as unfair.The fear of communism remained, but Senator McCarthy and McCarthyism faded away.