Presentation on theme: "Cold War. The state of hostility, without actual warfare that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II until the collapse."— Presentation transcript:
The state of hostility, without actual warfare that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Roots of the Cold War
Philosophical Differences - Philosophical differences between the Soviet Union and the United States reached back to the 1920s. Soviet Union: communism, totalitarian dictatorship United States: free-enterprise capitalism, republic
World War II Conflicts Allies during the war, but not truly friends Soviets wanted British and Americans to open a second European front earlier in the war. U.S. atomic bomb plans worried Soviet Union.
Postwar Conflicts The Soviet Union refused to let Eastern Europe hold elections as promised at Yalta. The United States resisted Soviet expansion.
The Iron Curtain Stalin wanted to retain political and economic control over Eastern Europe. The Soviets managed to install Communist governments throughout Eastern Europe. – Stalin outlawed political parties or newspapers that opposed the Communists. – The Soviets jailed or killed some political opponents. – The Soviets rigged elections to ensure the success of Communists.
Iron Curtain Winston Churchill’s term for the extension of Communist control over Eastern Europe.
Iron Curtain was blocking out truth and freedom Iron Curtain was blocking out truth and freedom The term reflected Churchill’s belief that communism had created a sharp division in Europe.
Soviet Views of the Iron Curtain Stalin believed that the Iron Curtain was necessary to protect the Soviet Union from western attacks. Stalin used Churchill’s words to help persuade his people that the United States and Great Britain were their enemies. He also used this as an excuse to rebuild the military.
How did the United States respond to Soviet actions in Europe?
Containment George F. Kennan created a policy known as containment. This policy stated that the United States should resist Soviet attempts to expand its power. Containment included economic aid, sanctions, and military force.
Truman Doctrine Truman Doctrine - 1947 Said that the United States would help people fight against oppressors Truman wanted to send aid to Greece and Turkey to help them fight Soviet pressure. Congress agreed to send millions of dollars to Greece and Turkey.
Marshall Plan An aid program to rebuild the economies of European countries to create stable conditions for democracies 17 countries received $13.4 billion dollars in aid. Helped build strong political support in Western Europe
Does this Cartoon apply today?
Crisis in Berlin With the start of the Cold War, it became clear that the Soviets planned to keep their German zone under Communist control. British, Americans, and French – attempt to set up united democratic governments in their three zones of occupation – Including their Berlin Zones!
Soviets Bloc Traffic In June 1948 the Soviets announced that they would block any road, rail, or river traffic into West Berlin. In June 1948 the Soviets announced that they would block any road, rail, or river traffic into West Berlin. West Berlin’s residents were cut off from food, coal, and other products. West Berlin’s residents were cut off from food, coal, and other products. West Berlin was not completely cutoff because it had airstrips. West Berlin was not completely cutoff because it had airstrips.
Who put up the wall?
The Berlin Airlift British and American planes began making deliveries to West Berlin. The Berlin Airlift continued for months and months. Finally, the Soviet Union lifted its blockade on May 12, 1949.
Berlin Airlift Supply of West Berlin by American and British planes during a Soviet blockade in 1948-49.
NATO In 1949 the U.S. and 6 other nations joined Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the U.K. to form NATO. An armed attack against one would be considered an attack against all. Today, 26 countries belong to NATO.
Warsaw Pact Soviet’s response to NATO Military alliance between the Soviet Union and nations of Eastern Europe, formed in 1955.
Cold War Spreads to East Asia Communist China Communists in China had gained nearly full control of the country. The Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan China was in the hands of the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong. Americans worried that China increased the Communist threat to the United States.
Domino Theory Belief that if one country fell to communism neighboring countries would likely fall as well.
Korea before the War After World War II, Japanese-occupied Korea was temporarily divided into northern and southern parts. The Soviet Union controlled Korea north of the 38th parallel. The United States would be in charge of Korea south of the 38th parallel.
The Start of the Korean War North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950. Most leaders in the United States were surprised by this attack. – American troops stationed in South Korea since WW II had recently completed their withdrawal. – The United States was not well prepared to fight in Korea; however, the decision to fight was made quickly. Truman decided that the United States would take a stand against Communist aggression in Korea. The United Nations Security Council voted unanimously in favor of the use of force in Korea.
The Start of the Korean War Role of the United States South Korea was where the United States had to take a stand against Communist aggression. Truman ordered American naval and air forces to support Korean ground troops. Truman asked the United Nations to approve the use of force to stop the North Korean invasion.
Role of the United Nations The troops sent to Korea were to be a United Nations force. Instead of calling this a war, the whole effort was referred to as a UN police action.
The Inchon Landing - UN forces made an amphibious landing behind North Korean lines at the port city of Inchon. MacArthur’s surprise attack worked beautifully. The September 1950 invasion at Inchon was a key victory for UN forces.
General MacArthur Is Fired MacArthur said that the UN faced a choice between defeat by the Chinese or a major war with them. He wanted to expand the war by bombing the Chinese mainland, perhaps even with atomic weapons. Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway stopped the Chinese onslaught and pushed them back to the 38 th parallel— without needing to expand the war or use atomic weapons. MacArthur disagreed with President Truman about the direction of the fighting and challenged the authority of the president. Truman fired MacArthur. Many Americans were outraged at the firing of MacArthur.
Fighting Ends in Korea Negotiating for Peace In July 1951 peace talks began. One major obstacle was the location of the boundary between the Koreas. Meanwhile battles such as Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge continued, inflicting heavy casualties on both sides. In October 1951 peace talks stalled over prisoners of war. Negotiators in Panmunjom continued to argue over the details of a peace agreement throughout 1952.
Events of 1953 In 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower—who promised to end the war—was elected president. Fighting remained deadly—in the final two months of the war, UN forces lost 57,000 men and the Communists lost 100,000. An armistice agreement was finally reached on July 27, 1953. The Korean War left the map of Korea looking much as it had in 1950. The human costs were huge.
The Growing Fear of Communism Soviet Atomic Weapons In September 1949 Truman announced that the Soviet Union had detonated an atomic bomb. This was a shock to the nation. Truman began to strengthen the nation’s military against a possible Soviet nuclear threat.
Arms Race US and Soviet Union (USSR) – end up in a major arms race to see who could have the most weapons and technology.
Sputnik First artificial satellite to orbit Earth, launched by the Soviet Union in 1957.
Communism in the United States The House Un- American Activities Committee investigated the full range of radical groups in the United States, including Fascists and Communists.
Truman created a plan to investigate all federal employees. Those found to be disloyal to the United States were barred from federal employment. The Smith Act made it a crime to call for the overthrow of the U.S. government or belong to an organization that did so. The McCarran Act limited the rights of Communist organizations. Several spy cases in the late 1940s fueled fears of communism Fighting Communism at Home
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Husband and wife convicted and executed in 1953 for passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union; their guilt is still debated.
Investigating Communism – The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) explored the possible Communist influence in the American film industry. The Hollywood Ten refused to answer HUAC questions about their beliefs or those of their colleagues. Many others in Hollywood did testify, for if they didn’t their names were placed on a blacklist.
Joseph McCarthy and the Second Red Scare Joseph McCarthy was a senator who claimed that there were 205 known Communists working for the U.S. Department of State. McCarthy’s claims were rarely backed up with any evidence, but this didn’t stop him from gaining a reputation as being the nation’s top Communist fighter.
McCarthy’s Fall McCarthy continued his campaign from the Senate but became increasingly wild in his accusations. In 1952 he began to go after fellow Republicans. In 1954 he attacked the U.S. Army, claiming that it was protecting Communists. The public came to view McCarthy’s tactics as unfair. The fear of communism remained, but Senator McCarthy and McCarthyism faded away.