2FocusWhat do you remember about the Cold War from World History?
3The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan]GOAL spread world-wide CommunismMETHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars”Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
4Yalta Conference Feb. 1945The Division of Germany once the war is overSoviet Union would occupy Eastern European countries and agreed to hold elections in these countries following the war
9Roots of the Cold WarDifferences between the Soviet Union and the United States reached back to the 1920s.Soviet Union: communism, totalitarian dictatorshipUnited States: capitalism, republicPhilosophicalDifferencesAllies during the war, but not truly friendsSoviets wanted British and Americans to open a second European front earlier in the war. 28U.S. atomic bomb plans worried Soviet Union.World War IIConflictsMapThe Soviet Union refused to let Eastern Europe hold elections as promised at Yalta.The United States resisted Soviet expansion.PostwarConflictsWhich of the causes do you think was the major sourceOf conflict leading to the Cold War?
10Pair ShareWhat were some causes of the Cold War?
11The Iron Curtain What is an Iron Curtain? Stalin wanted to retain political and economic control over Eastern Europe.The Soviets managed to install Communist governments throughout Eastern Europe.Stalin outlawed political parties or newspapers that opposed the Communists.The Soviets jailed or killed some political opponents.The Soviets rigged elections to ensure the success of Communists.Yugoslavia was the one Eastern European nation that was not under the direct control of Stalin and the Soviet Union.Josip Broz Tito, a Communist, refused to take orders from the Soviet Union.The Soviet Union relocated Germans living in Poland and other countries of Eastern Europe.
12The Iron Curtain Western Views of the Iron Curtain Winston Churchill attacked the Soviet Union for creating an Iron Curtain.The term reflected Churchill’s belief that communism had created a sharp division in Europe.Harry S Truman urged his secretary of state to get tough with the Soviets.Soviet Views of the Iron CurtainStalin believed that the Iron Curtain was necessary to protect the Soviet Union from western attacks.Stalin used Churchill’s words to help persuade his people that the United States and Great Britain were their enemies.He also used this as an excuse to rebuild the military.
17Russian History of Invasion France (Napoleon) 350,000 Russians killedGermany (WWI) 5 million Russians killedTotal deaths of WWI- 16 millionGermany (WWII) 30 million Russians killed*Japan 2 million, Germany 7 million killedTotal deaths of WWII millionStalin wanted a Buffer Zone against future attacksWhat is a Buffer Zone? Was he Justified?
18Analyze this Political Cartoon Pair Share:Analyze this Political Cartoon
19Analyze this Political Cartoon Pair Share:Analyze this Political Cartoon
20Who said, “An Iron Curtain has descended upon the Continent?” What is the Iron Curtain?
25United States Response to Communism George Keenan comes up with the containment policy (keep communism where it is, do not let it spread)Truman Doctrine: We will help countries at risk of becoming communistMarshall Plan: Sent $13 billion to Western European nationsBerlin Airlift: Soviets close Berlin; US flies in supplies to the people for nearly 1 year, flying 280,000 flights in and out or Berlin
26What is the official Cold War policy of the United States? Define
27How did the United States respond to Soviet actions in Europe? ContainmentGeorge F. Kennan created a policy known as containment.This policy stated that the United States should resist Soviet attempts to expand its power.Containment included economic aid, sanctions, and military force.Truman DoctrineSaid that the United States would help people fight against oppressorsTruman wanted to send aid to Greece and Turkey to help them fight Soviet pressure.Congress agreed to send millions of dollars to Greece and Turkey.Marshall PlanAn aid program to rebuild the economies of European countries to create stable conditions for democracies17 countries received $13.4 billion dollars in aid.Helped build strong political support in Western EuropeMapPlan
28What was the Truman Doctrine? What was the Marshall Plan?
29Crisis in BerlinWith the start of the Cold War, it became clear that the Soviets planned to keep their German zone under Communist control.The British, Americans, and French began to take steps to set up a free, democratic government within their German zones.The western zone eventually became known as the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany.The British, Americans, and French also tried to set up a democratic government in West Berlin.The Soviets were not happy with the idea of a Western-style government and economy in the middle of the Soviet zone of occupation.
32The Crisis in Berlin Soviets Bloc Traffic In June 1948 the Soviets announced that they would block any road, rail, or river traffic into West Berlin.West Berlin’s residents were cut off from food, coal, and other products.West Berlin was not completely cutoff because it had airstrips.The Berlin AirliftBritish and American planes began making deliveries to West Berlin.The Berlin Airlift continued for months and months.Finally, the Soviet Union lifted its blockade on May 12, 1949.NATO FormsIn 1949 the U.S. and 6 other nations joined Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the U.K. to form NATO.An armed attack against one would be considered an attack against all.Today, 26 countries belong to NATO.Berlin
35Berlin Air Lift June 1948- May 1949 7,000 tons of supplies daily
36Analyze this Political Cartoon. Pair Share:Analyze this Political Cartoon.
37Why did the Soviet Union block all traffic into West Berlin? How did the U.S. respond?What is NATO?
38What were two different ways that the Marshall Plan benefited the United States?Why did the U.S. offer aid to EasternEuropean countries?Why do you think the Soviet Union refusedU.S. aid?Back
39Crisis In BerlinThe Soviet Union has just blocked all access routes into West Berlin million residents are now without food, water, and other basic necessities? If you were the president, what would you do?Back