Presentation on theme: "Focus What do you remember about the Cold War from World History?"— Presentation transcript:
Focus What do you remember about the Cold War from World History?
The Cold War [ ]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world-wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: 1.Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] 2.Arms Race [nuclear escalation] 3.Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” 4.Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Yalta Conference Feb The Division of Germany once the war is over Soviet Union would occupy Eastern European countries and agreed to hold elections in these countries following the war
Potsdam Conference July 1945
The Soviet Union
Roots of the Cold War Allies during the war, but not truly friends Soviets wanted British and Americans to open a second European front earlier in the war U.S. atomic bomb plans worried Soviet Union. Philosophical Differences Differences between the Soviet Union and the United States reached back to the 1920s. Soviet Union: communism, totalitarian dictatorship United States: capitalism, republic World War II Conflicts The Soviet Union refused to let Eastern Europe hold elections as promised at Yalta. The United States resisted Soviet expansion. Postwar Conflicts Map Which of the causes do you think was the major source Of conflict leading to the Cold War?
Pair Share What were some causes of the Cold War?
The Iron Curtain What is an Iron Curtain? Stalin wanted to retain political and economic control over Eastern Europe. The Soviets managed to install Communist governments throughout Eastern Europe. –Stalin outlawed political parties or newspapers that opposed the Communists. –The Soviets jailed or killed some political opponents. –The Soviets rigged elections to ensure the success of Communists. Yugoslavia was the one Eastern European nation that was not under the direct control of Stalin and the Soviet Union. –Josip Broz Tito, a Communist, refused to take orders from the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union relocated Germans living in Poland and other countries of Eastern Europe.
Western Views of the Iron Curtain Soviet Views of the Iron Curtain Winston Churchill attacked the Soviet Union for creating an Iron Curtain. The term reflected Churchill’s belief that communism had created a sharp division in Europe. Harry S Truman urged his secretary of state to get tough with the Soviets. Stalin believed that the Iron Curtain was necessary to protect the Soviet Union from western attacks. Stalin used Churchill’s words to help persuade his people that the United States and Great Britain were their enemies. He also used this as an excuse to rebuild the military. The Iron Curtain
Explain the meaning of the political cartoon. Who are the people? What are they doing? Etc.
Soviet Union & Communism
Russian History of Invasion France (Napoleon) 350,000 Russians killed Germany (WWI) 5 million Russians killed Total deaths of WWI- 16 million Germany (WWII) 30 million Russians killed *Japan 2 million, Germany 7 million killed Total deaths of WWII million Stalin wanted a Buffer Zone against future attacks What is a Buffer Zone? Was he Justified?
Pair Share: Analyze this Political Cartoon
Pair Share: Analyze this Political Cartoon
Who said, “An Iron Curtain has descended upon the Continent?” What is the Iron Curtain?
United States Response to Communism containmentGeorge Keenan comes up with the containment policy (keep communism where it is, do not let it spread) Truman DoctrineTruman Doctrine: We will help countries at risk of becoming communist Marshall PlanMarshall Plan: Sent $13 billion to Western European nations Berlin AirliftBerlin Airlift: Soviets close Berlin; US flies in supplies to the people for nearly 1 year, flying 280,000 flights in and out or Berlin
What is the official Cold War policy of the United States? Define
Containment George F. Kennan created a policy known as containment. This policy stated that the United States should resist Soviet attempts to expand its power. Containment included economic aid, sanctions, and military force. Truman Doctrine Said that the United States would help people fight against oppressors Truman wanted to send aid to Greece and Turkey to help them fight Soviet pressure. Congress agreed to send millions of dollars to Greece and Turkey. How did the United States respond to Soviet actions in Europe? Marshall Plan An aid program to rebuild the economies of European countries to create stable conditions for democracies 17 countries received $13.4 billion dollars in aid. Helped build strong political support in Western Europe MapPlan
What was the Truman Doctrine? What was the Marshall Plan?
Crisis in Berlin With the start of the Cold War, it became clear that the Soviets planned to keep their German zone under Communist control. The British, Americans, and French began to take steps to set up a free, democratic government within their German zones. –The western zone eventually became known as the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany. The British, Americans, and French also tried to set up a democratic government in West Berlin. –The Soviets were not happy with the idea of a Western-style government and economy in the middle of the Soviet zone of occupation.
Soviets Bloc Traffic In June 1948 the Soviets announced that they would block any road, rail, or river traffic into West Berlin. West Berlin’s residents were cut off from food, coal, and other products. West Berlin was not completely cutoff because it had airstrips. The Berlin Airlift British and American planes began making deliveries to West Berlin. The Berlin Airlift continued for months and months. Finally, the Soviet Union lifted its blockade on May 12, The Crisis in Berlin NATO Forms In 1949 the U.S. and 6 other nations joined Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the U.K. to form NATO. An armed attack against one would be considered an attack against all. Today, 26 countries belong to NATO. Berlin
Berlin Air Lift June May ,000 tons of supplies daily
Pair Share: Analyze this Political Cartoon.
Why did the Soviet Union block all traffic into West Berlin? How did the U.S. respond? What is NATO?
Back What were two different ways that the Marshall Plan benefited the United States? Why did the U.S. offer aid to Eastern European countries? Why do you think the Soviet Union refused U.S. aid?
Crisis In Berlin The Soviet Union has just blocked all access routes into West Berlin. 2.1 million residents are now without food, water, and other basic necessities? If you were the president, what would you do? Back