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Chapter 14 Section 1 Peacetime Adjustments and The Cold War.

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1 Chapter 14 Section 1 Peacetime Adjustments and The Cold War

2 Levittown, New York Many returning veterans wanted housing – the GI Bill would pay for it Many returning veterans wanted housing – the GI Bill would pay for it Huge Demand for Housing for families Huge Demand for Housing for families William Levitt used assembly line techniques to house building William Levitt used assembly line techniques to house building Created Levittown, NY out of this system Created Levittown, NY out of this system

3 Levittown – the start of “planned” suburbs in America

4 Labor Unrest Workers in the auto, steel, meatpacking, and railroad industry went on strike in 1946 Workers in the auto, steel, meatpacking, and railroad industry went on strike in 1946 President Truman was worried about the railroad workers going on strike the most President Truman was worried about the railroad workers going on strike the most

5 Civil Rights after WWII Many Blacks returned from war – the Civil Rights situation hadn’t changed Many Blacks returned from war – the Civil Rights situation hadn’t changed Blacks were still harassed, threatened from voting, and killed Blacks were still harassed, threatened from voting, and killed Truman established Commission on Civil Rights & ended segregation of the military Truman established Commission on Civil Rights & ended segregation of the military Southern Democrats resisted Truman on other Civil Rights proposals Southern Democrats resisted Truman on other Civil Rights proposals

6 Problems for Harry Truman – looking for re-election 1946 – Republican Congress in the majority now 1946 – Republican Congress in the majority now Many Truman programs were blocked by Congress (no federal funds for education, health care, housing; Taft Hartley Act) Many Truman programs were blocked by Congress (no federal funds for education, health care, housing; Taft Hartley Act) Trailed in the polls to NY Gov. Thomas Dewey Trailed in the polls to NY Gov. Thomas Dewey

7 More Problems for Truman in the 1948 Election Democrats were divided into three parts: Democrats were divided into three parts: 1.Harry Truman (current president) 2.Henry Wallace (more liberal than Truman / supported by the “New Dealers” 3.Strom Thurmond (member of the “Dixiecrats” – part of the movement that left the Democratic Party when it put in a strong Civil Rights platform at the convention) **Truman feared…Would this divide our party and ensure that the Republican would win??

8 Election of 1948 Truman took his message directly to the people Truman took his message directly to the people Went on an eight-week, non stop train tour across country Went on an eight-week, non stop train tour across country Scored a big “upset” win over Dewey in the election Scored a big “upset” win over Dewey in the election After the win – Truman pushed the “Fair Deal” – projects aimed at creating jobs, ending discrimination, and ensuring fair housing After the win – Truman pushed the “Fair Deal” – projects aimed at creating jobs, ending discrimination, and ensuring fair housing So many people believed Dewey would win the election. Even newspapers (like this one) printed early editions with the headline that Dewey had won. Here, Truman holds up the “incorrect” headline

9 Cold War Map of Europe Blue=Capitalist/Democracy Red=Communist Yellow=Neutral

10 Truman’s Policy toward Communism Believed in the Containment Policy Believed in the Containment Policy Means stopping the spread of Communism to new areas Means stopping the spread of Communism to new areas Based on the belief that Communists wanted to “spread” their influence Based on the belief that Communists wanted to “spread” their influence Use military and non- military means Use military and non- military means

11 The Truman Doctrine Stated that the U.S. would give “assistance” to nations that were threatened by Communism

12 Western Democracies form NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization North Atlantic Treaty Organization Alliance of Western Democracies (U.S., Canada, France, Britain, etc.) Alliance of Western Democracies (U.S., Canada, France, Britain, etc.) Soviets respond with their own alliance called the “Warsaw Pact” Soviets respond with their own alliance called the “Warsaw Pact” NATO Warsaw Pact

13 Berlin, Germany: A divided city Germany – as a nation – was divided after WWII (Western Democracies – US / Britain / France – controlled the Western half……..The Soviets controlled the East Germany – as a nation – was divided after WWII (Western Democracies – US / Britain / France – controlled the Western half……..The Soviets controlled the East The city of Berlin (even though lying in the Eastern half of the country) was divided as well (The Western countries had access to it) The city of Berlin (even though lying in the Eastern half of the country) was divided as well (The Western countries had access to it)

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15 Blocking Access to Berlin Soviet Forces tried to block access to the city – so the West couldn’t get in Soviet Forces tried to block access to the city – so the West couldn’t get in Stalin surrounded the city with troops and prevented all Western democracies to enter the city Stalin surrounded the city with troops and prevented all Western democracies to enter the city Truman needed to make a decision… Truman needed to make a decision… –Can he just let the Soviets have the Western half of Berlin? –That wouldn’t go well with his “Containment” policy

16 Truman’s Decision Truman approved a massive “Airlift” of food, medicine, and other relief supplies to the western half of Berlin Truman approved a massive “Airlift” of food, medicine, and other relief supplies to the western half of Berlin People are overjoyed with American generosity People are overjoyed with American generosity

17 The Berlin Airlift

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19 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Accused of passing atomic secrets to the Russians in 1951 Accused of passing atomic secrets to the Russians in 1951 Members of American Communist Party Members of American Communist Party Executed in 1953 for Espionage (spying) Executed in 1953 for Espionage (spying)


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