Presentation on theme: "Peacetime Adjustments & the Cold War The Cold War and the American Dream (1945-1960) Chapter 28, Section 1."— Presentation transcript:
Peacetime Adjustments & the Cold War The Cold War and the American Dream (1945-1960) Chapter 28, Section 1
Essential Questions How can we achieve world peace?
Post War Lay-Offs At the End of WWII, Most Factories Making War Goods Switched Back to Making Consumer Goods Factories Didn’t Need as Many Workers/Some Factories Shut Down! “You’re Fired!”
Post War Jobs Over 10 Million War Veterans Returned Home Looking for Jobs! Female Workers were Fired to Give Jobs Back to Returning Veterans (Males) As the U.S. Economy “Boomed” Years Later, Women Will Go Back to Work: –Teachers –Nurses –Secretaries
Fear of Post War Recession/Depression Why Do YOU Think Many Economists & Americans Feared a Post War Depression?
Post War Economic “Boom!” Americans Started Families: –Americans Got Married! –“The Baby Boom” –American Families Bought New Homes –Bought Numerous Consumer Goods –Americans Had $$$ to Spend (Men & Women) –Demand for Goods Increased –The G.I. Bill of Rights : Government Guaranteed Low Interest Loans for Housing for Veterans Created a Demand for New Houses
Unions During WWII During WWII, the U.S. Government Froze Wages (Salaries) and Prices of Goods! Unions Agreed Not to Go On Strike Why Not?
Post War Strikes In 1946, the U.S. Government Un-Froze Wages and Prices Because of the Demand for Goods, Prices Skyrocketed Up Workers Salaries Barely Rose – Workers Went on Strike: –Automakers –Steel Workers –Meat Packers –Electricians –Miners –Railroad Workers
1946 Railroad Strike? In 1946, Railroad Union Workers Threatened to Go on Strike Harry Truman Liked Unions, But Could Not Have a Railroad Strike! Why Can YOU Never Have a Transportation Strike? What Did He Threaten to do if Railroad Workers Went on Strike?
Post War Equality? African Americans Were Sure Their WWII Service Would Grant Them More Rights! Nothing Changed! Jim Crow Laws, Segregation, Violence, & the KKK Were Still Strong in the South!
The Push for Civil Rights Harry Truman Pushed for 4 Things To Stop Racism: –Created a Commission on Civil Rights –Issued an Executive Order to End Segregation in the Military –Pushed for an Anti-Lynching Law in Congress –Pushed to End the Poll Tax in Order to Vote Southerners in Congress Voted Against the Anti- Lynching Law & Ending the Poll Tax Harry Truman Was the 1 st President to Make Civil Rights a National Issue!
The Taft-Hartley Act (1947) Hurt Unions! (Unions Were Growing Strong w/All of the 1946 Strikes! Gave President of the U.S. the Power to Require an 80 Day “Cooling Off” Period Before a Strike Takes Place Outlawed the “Closed” Shop: –A Workplace that Was Only Hiring Union Members
1948 Presidential Election Democrat Harry S. Truman vs. Republican Thomas Dewey (NY) Dewey Was Favored to Win! Republicans Did the Best They Could to Block All of Truman’s Ideas/Laws in Congress Truman Called the Republicans the “Do- Nothing” Congress!
The “Fair” Deal: Harry S. Truman Wins the 1948 Election! Truman Proposes the “Fair” Deal to Congress: –Extension of FDR’s New Deal Policies –Wanted New Public Works Projects to Create Jobs –Build Public Housing –End Racial Discrimination The “Fair” Deal Was a Failure!
Multiple Choice What Type of Government Does the U.S. Have? What Type of Economy Does the U.S. Have? What is Capitalism?
Origins of the Cold War At the End of WWII, 2 Countries Emerged as Super Powers: –The United States –The Soviet Union (USSR) Toughest Problem to Deal with Was How to Deal w/Eastern European Countries That Were Now Free! These Countries Were Freed by the Soviet Army
Yalta Promises At the Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945) the “Big 3” Agreed to: –U.S.S.R. Would Help the Allies Against Japan in the Pacific –Creation of the United Nations –Eastern European Countries Freed by the Soviets Would be Allowed to Vote for the Type of Government They Want What Did Stalin do Instead?
Stalin’s Fears Joseph Stalin Feared that Free Elections Might Result in Democratic Countries! 27.5 Million Russians Died During WWII –7.5 Million Soldiers –Over 20 Million Soviet Civilians Stalin Wanted a “Buffer Zone” to Make Sure the U.S.S.R. Couldn’t be Invaded Again Created Communist Dictatorships in Eastern European Countries!
United States’ Fears U.S. & Western European Democratic Countries Feared the Soviet Union was Trying to Spread Communism World Wide! U.S. Wanted to Spread Democracy and Capitalism
The Cold War The United States vs. The Soviet Union A War to Stop the Spread of Each Side’s Form of Government U.S. & the U.S.S.R. Never Fired a Shot at Each Other (Sort of) Explain Later! Lasted From 1945- Early 1990’s
“The Iron Curtain” Winston Churchill Warned the World that, “An Iron Curtain” had been Cast on Europe Why Did Churchill Use that Metaphor? What Was Churchill Trying to Say?
Winston Churchill (1946) “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the… states of Central and Eastern Europe… All these… populations… lie in the Soviet sphere and all are subject… not only to Soviet influence… but to increasing control from Moscow.” –Winston Churchill, “Iron Curtain” Speech, Fulton Missouri
Containment Policy Harry Truman’s Containment Strategy Was to Stop the Spread of Communism World Wide United States Would Use Military and Non-Military Ways to Stop Communism! What Are Non- Military Ways?
Truman Doctrine Harry Truman Promised that the United States Would Help ANY Country that Fought For Democracy! Goal was to Prevent Soviet Union From Taking Over Countries Greece Was the 1 st Country We Helped!
NATO NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization Alliance of United States, Canada & Western European (Democratic) Countries What’s the Problem with Alliances?
The Warsaw Pact In Response to the NATO Alliance, the Soviets Union Created the Warsaw Pact Alliance of the Soviet Union and Eastern European Countries What Are the Causes of World Wars?
The Marshall Plan The United States Gave Over $13 Billion Dollars to Western and Southern European Countries Containment Policy/Truman DoctrineContainment Policy/Truman Doctrine: Stop the Spread of Communism Wanted to Rebuild/Revive Western & Southern European Economies
Post War Germany At the End of WWII, Germany Was Divided Up Into 4 Zones by the Allies U.S., Great Britain, France & the Soviet Union Controlled the 4 Zones Berlin (The Capital) was Inside the Soviet Union’s Zone!
Berlin, Germany 1945 Berlin is the Capital of Germany Berlin was Inside the Soviet Zone, but it too was Divided Up Into 4 Zones Amongst the Allies Stalin Wanted the Capital for the Soviet Union: –If You Take the Capital, You Take the Country Soviet Union Put Up a Blockade to Force Out the Allies: –No Allied Troops/ Supplies/In or Out of Berlin!
The Berlin Airlift! The U.S., Great Britain, and France United Their 3 Zones Into Western Germany! Soviet Union Feared a Democratic Germany: –Soviet Army Put Up a Blockade Around the City! U.S. Responded with the Berlin Airlift : –Brought Food –Fuel –Equipment –Supplies
Berlin Wall The Berlin Airlift Lasted for Over a Year! Over 275,000 Flights Were Made Into Berlin to Prevent Berlin From Surrendering to the Soviets Stalin Called Off the Blockade! Decided to Build the Berlin Wall!
Results of the Berlin Airlift Germany Was Divided Into West Germany (Democratic) and East Germany (Communist) Berlin (Inside of East Germany) was Divided Into West Berlin (Democratic) and East Berlin (Communist) Lasted This Way Until the Cold War Ended!
Fears of Communism Many Americans Feared the Spread of Communism in the United States Another “Red Scare” Feared Communists Living in the U.S. Might Be Spies!
Famous “Red Scare” Trials Alger Hiss (State Department Official) Was Arrested and Convicted for Passing Military Secrets to the Soviet Union Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Were Members of the Communist Party: –Sentenced to Death for Stealing Atomic Secrets & Giving them to the Soviets
Loyalty Checks Harry Truman Wanted Americans to Feel Safe Harry Truman Ordered that ALL 3 Million U.S. Government Workers Go Through “Loyalty Checks” Are YOU a Communist? What’s Wrong With This?
HUAC House Un-American Activities Committee In 1947, the U.S. Government Targeted the Movie Industry of Suspected Communists Many Actors, Directors and Writers Lost Their Jobs! Government Feared the Spread Communism