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18.1 Origins of the Cold War Kellie Caro Ashley Broderick

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1 18.1 Origins of the Cold War Kellie Caro Ashley Broderick
Alexa Ankenman After World War Two ends, The Soviet Union and The United States become suspicious of each other. The two nations are considered the superpowers of the time, but the differ greatly on their political and economic policies. The tensions that grew during this time period almost lasted until the 21st century.

2 Former Allies Clash Soviet Union The United States Stalin: name
Communism Totalitarian government Thinks US should have joined the war effort sooner The United States Capitalism Voting Doesn’t trust Stalin: former ally of Hitler, only joined the allies after the Soviet Union is Attacked by Germany

3 Truman Becomes President
The United Nations April 25th 1945 delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco Becomes grounds for the US and Soviet Union to debate Truman Becomes President April FDR dies, leaving his vice president, Truman as President Not included in top policy decisions, such as Manhattan Project The Potsdam Conference July 1945 the Big Three meet to discuss postwar world Clement Atlee replaces Churchill, Truman replaces FDR (from Yalta conference) Stalin does not keep his promises made at Yalta, such as letting Poland have free elections

4 18.1 Vocabulary United Nations: an international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security and economic development. Satellite nation: a country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation. Containment: the blocking of another nation’s attempt to spread it’s influence. Iron curtain: a phrase used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line that separated Communist countries in the Soviet bloc of Eastern Europe from countries in Western Europe. Cold War: the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that develop between the US and the Soviet Union after WWII. Truman Doctrine: a US policy announced by Harry S. Truman in 1947, of providing Economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents. Marshall Plan: the program, proposed by secretary of State George Marshal in 1947, under which the US supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild After WWII. Berlin airlift: a 327 day operation and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockade the city in 1948. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): a defense military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European countries, the US and Canada.

5 Tension Mounts Truman's goal: to spread democracy to Nations that have been under Nazi rule. He wanted to create a new world order in which all nations had the right to self determination. Soviets Tighten Grip Soviet Union emerged from war, but unlike the US, Soviet Union suffered heavy devastation on its own soil. Estimated 20 million deaths. Soviets then tried to dominate Eastern Europe to stop further invasions from the west. Stalin installed communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland. US establishes Containment proposed by George F. Kennan in 1946. This divided Europe into 2 political regions, Democratic( Western Europe) & communist (Eastern Europe). Bargaining at Potsdam Yalta Conference- Soviets wanted to take reparations from Germany to help pay Soviet wartime loss. agreed that Soviets, British, Americans and French would take reparations from their own occupation zones. US industry boomed during war, making the Economic leader of the world.

6 US Aims VS. Soviet Aims in Europe
SOVIETS wanted to: Encourage communism in other Countries as part of the worldwide struggle between workers and the Wealthy. Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe's industrial equipment and raw materials. Control Eastern Europe to balance US influence in Western Europe. Keep Germany divided and weak so that it would never again threaten the Soviet Union. UNITED STATES wanted to: Creates a new world order in which all nations had the right to self determination. Gain access to raw materials and markets for its industry. Rebuild European governments to ensure stability and to create new markets for American good. Reunite Germany, believing that Europe would be more secure if Germany were productive.

7 Cold War in Europe The Cold War was caused by the different aims in Eastern Europe of U.S. and the Soviet Union. The Cold War took control of global affairs. Britain sent economic and military support to Greece and Turkey to prevent communist takeovers until Britain’s economy was hurt badly. U.S. took over the responsibility and started the Truman Doctrine, which used $400 million to help Greece and Turkey. This was very vital in keeping Soviet Union’s influence from spreading. Millions of people in Western Europe were living in refugee camps and the cold weather damaged crops and froze rivers, which cut off water transportation and caused a fuel shortage. The U.S. started the Marshall Plan, which helped European nations and gave 16 countries $13 billion in help. After WWII Germany was divided into four zones and was occupied by the U.S., Great Britain, and France in the west and the Soviet Union in the east and U.S., France, and Great Britain wanted to combine their three zones into one. So that these countries couldn’t pass through Berlin Stalin closed all highway and rail routes into West Berlin and no food or fuel could get to this city.

8 Cold War in Europe cont. To fly food and supplies to Berlin the U.S. and Britain started Berlin aircraft and in 277,000 flights 2.3 million tons of supplies were brought. May 1949 the Soviet Union lifted the Blockade. Also in May, western Germany became a new nation called the Federal Republic of Germany or West Germany and included West Berlin. The Soviet Union created German Democratic Republic or East Germany and it included East Berlin. Ten Western European nations created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and gave each other military support. This was the first time the U.S. had entered into a military alliance during peacetime. Later Greece, Turkey, and West Germany joined NATO also.

9 Questions 1. Which country was a satellite nation? a. Hungary b. United States c. France d. Japan 2. Taking measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries is called a. restriction b. containment c. blacklist d. brinkmanship 3. How many countries were involved in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization? a. 25 b. 5 c. 15 d How many flights brought supplies to West Berlin while their was a blockade? a. 2,000 b. 23,000 c. 277,000 d Where did the delegates meet to establish the United Nations? a. San Francisco b. New York City c. Washington D.C. D. Los Angeles

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