Presentation on theme: "US History II Chapter 26 Cold War Conflicts Section 1 Origins of the Cold War."— Presentation transcript:
US History II Chapter 26 Cold War Conflicts Section 1 Origins of the Cold War
Former Allies Clash –Growing problems between the US and the USSR –Soviet system of Communism, the state controlled all property and economic activity –US system of Capitalism, private citizens controlled property and economic activity
–US democracy, the President and Congress elected by people –Soviet Union communism, the Communist Party controlled the totalitarian government and no opposing parties were allowed –Soviets upset that US never recognized the Communist government until 16 years after the Russian Revolution
–Although the US and Soviets were allies during WWII, their leaders did not see eye to eye. –Hopes for peace were high at the end of WWII –April 25, 1945 representatives from 50 nations met to establish a new international peacekeeping body, The United Nations (UN) –June 26, 1945, charter signed establishing the UN, will be built in New York City.
–Although intended to be used to promote peace, both the US and USSR, used the UN to spread their influence over other nations Truman Becomes President –Thirteen days before the UN conference started, Harry S. Truman became president when Franklin Roosevelt suddenly died. –82 days as vice president, Truman only met with Roosevelt twice.
–Truman was so uninformed, he didn’t know the US was developing an atomic bomb! Truman Meets Stalin at Potsdam –Truman met with Stalin, USSR, & Churchill, Great Britain, for the first time at the final wartime conference of the Big Three (the leaders of the US, USSR & GB) at Potsdam.
–Previous meeting of group at Yalta, US & GB insisted that Soviets allow free elections in Poland and other Eastern European nations. –1945 Soviets prevented free elections in Poland and banned democratic parties. –Poland left in the hands of a pro-Soviet government.
Tensions Mount –Truman convinced that US and Soviet aims were deeply at odds. –Demanding free elections was to spread democracy to nations that had been under Nazi rule. –To avoid WWIII, Truman felt creating a new world order where all nations had the right of self- determination –This would be guaranteed by free elections
–Potsdam agreement that each nation would take reparations from the part of Germany each occupied. –US industry boomed during WWII, making the US the economic leader of the world. –To continue growing, US businesses wanted access to raw materials in eastern Europe and wanted to sell goods to eastern Europe countries.
Soviets Tighten Their Grip on Eastern Europe –Soviets suffered more than 20 million deaths and extensive damage during WWII. –Soviets felt vulnerable to attacks from the West, needed friendly neighbors - Communist countries they could control. –Stalin setup Communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland.
–Satellite nations, countries dependent upon and dominated by the Soviet Union. –Stalin seized industrial assets of these countries to rebuild the Soviet Union. –1946 Stalin speech says that communism and capitalism were incompatible. –Another war was inevitable therefore the Soviet Union would concentrate on building weapons instead of consumer goods. –US takes this as a declaration of war.
United States establishes a Policy of Containment –February 1946, George Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow proposed a policy of containment. –March 1946, “ An iron curtain has descended across Europe”, Winston Churchill –Stalin said Churchill’s words were “a call to war”
Cold War in Europe –A state of hostility, short of direct military confrontation, developed between the US and USSR The Controversial Truman Doctrine –Britain sends military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to contain Soviet influence. Bad British economy, ask US to take over
–March 12, 1947, Truman asks Congress for $400 million in economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey. –Truman also declares that the US should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by “armed minorities” or “outside pressures”. This became known as the Truman Doctrine –1947-1950, US sends over $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey.
Marshall Plan to the Rescue –June 1947: General George Marshall, Secretary of State, proposed the US provide aid to all European nations who needed it. Aimed at helping fight hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. Not against any country or doctrine. –Marshall Plan is approved after Soviet tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia and Soviets took control of the country.
Superpowers Struggle over Germany –By 1952, Western Europe is flourishing. –US and allies clash with Soviets over Germany. –End of WWII, Germany divided into four zones: US, Britain & France in West, Soviet Union in East. –Soviets wanted to keep Germany weak and divided, Allies want to unite and help rebuild industry.
–1948 the Allies combine 3 western zones into one nation. The Berlin Airlift –Berlin was situated in the middle of Soviet occupied Germany. Berlin, however, had also been divided into four occupation zones. –Allies reunited the 3 western zones of city. Soviets immediately cutoff all highway, water and rail traffic into western zones of Berlin
–No supplies could get in, city faced starvation. –American and British officials start Berlin Airlift to fly food and supplies into West Berlin. –For 327 days, 24/7, 277,000 flights brought 2.3 million tons of supplies. http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=e4496a28-c5a6-4fc4-8a55- f335cb3e49ed&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=HUB
–May 1949, West Berlin survived due to airlift. Soviets lift the blockade –May 1949 western zones of Germany form constitution establishing Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany. –Soviet Union turned its zone into German Democratic Republic, or East Germany
Peacetime Alliance – NATO –April 4, 1949 US and Canada, along with ten Western European countries formed a defensive military alliance, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). –All members agreed, an attack on any member was an attack on all. Military force would be used if necessary.
–For first time in US history, US entered into a military alliance with other nations during peacetime. –The Cold War ended US isolationism.