Presentation on theme: "Conscious and/or non-conscious social motivation Jonathan Schooler University of Pittsburgh."— Presentation transcript:
Conscious and/or non-conscious social motivation Jonathan Schooler University of Pittsburgh
Three questions of this conference –What is the relationship between conscious and non-conscious motivations? Son Hing et al. William et al. Pyszczynksi et al. Wood & Quinn Kernis & Goldman –How does self-regulation mediate motivation? Harackiewicz & Durik Devine Weiss & Beal Forster and Liberman Gendolla and Wood Askkanasy & Weiss Rhodewalt Forgas- Strack and Deutsch –What is the role of evolutionarily basic goals in mediating motivation? Spencer et. al Aarts & Hassin Neuberg et al.
Three Levels of Consciousness – Non-conscious- Information that is entirely outside of awareness – Experiential conscious - The contents of consciousness – Meta-conscious- Ones explicit understanding of their conscious experience.
Illustrated by the Example of Daydreaming While Reading –Three components of consciousness Non-conscious- The activation of associates of read words Experiential conscious- What one is daydreaming about Meta-conscious- The recognition that one has been daydreaming instead of reading
A diagrammatic model of the relationship between consciousness and meta-consciousness
Basic Assumptions of a Rudimentary Model of Meta-consciousness (Schooler, 2002) –Continuity of processes Unconscious tacit monitoring of cognitions occur continuously Strategy selection, goal monitoring Conscious experience continues continuously through waking hours Meta-consciousness only occurs intermittently Goal failure, request of self-report, natural introspection Likely that we overestimate frequency of meta-consciousness –Characteristics of meta-consciousness Limited è simultaneously meta-conscious of one aspect of an experience but not another Retrospective Verbal/Symbolic
Temporal Dissociations –Definition Experience in the absence of meta-consciousness occur when an individual, who previously lacked meta-consciousness about the contents of consciousness, directs meta-consciousness towards those contents –Examples Zoning out while reading (Schooler, Reichle, & Halpern, in press) People can be caught zoning out before they catch themselves Flow states (Csikszenmihalyi, 1990) Peak experiences associated with working in deep concentration Awareness of Emotional States (Lane 1998) People vary in their awareness of their emotional states Unwanted negative thoughts (Wegner, 1994) People have an automatic monitor that searches for unwanted thoughts è Wegner’s ironic search may actually be searching the contents of consciousness rather than pre-consciousness
–What is the relationship between conscious and non-conscious motivations?
Son Hing et. Al. –Overview Aversive racism occurs when individuals with high implicit but low explicit racism have an excuse to discriminate against out- group Explicit measures-conscious Implicit measures unconscious –Implications of meta-consciousness Aversive racists are not racist at the meta-conscious level but racists at the experiential level.
Williams, Case, & Warburton –Overview People sensitive to ostracism Explicit response - suck up Implicit response - back stab –Implications of meta-consciousness People may experience a sense of revenge without being meta-aware of this experience.
Pyszczynksi, Greenberg, & Solomon –Overview Fear of death induces self-esteem striving and allegiance to a cultural world view Differential responses when implicit vs. explicit Explicit è individuals rationalize è Implicit standard responses Placebo reduced effect of mortality salience MS affects the potential experience rather than the actual experience –Implications of meta-consciousness MS effects occurs at the experiential level
Wood & Quinn –Overview Habits and intentions differ in their cognitive, neurocognitive, and behavioral properties Intentions conscious, habits unconscious People are able to predict intentional but not habitual behavior. –Relevance of meta-consciousness Habits are experiential Intentions are meta-conscious Absence of meta-awareness of habits leads to the inability to make predictions
Kernis & Goldman –Overview People differ in the degree to which their motives reflect true intrinsic motivations Key element of authenticity is people’s awareness of ones motives, feelings, desires, and self-relevant cognitions- –Implications of meta-consciousness Meta-consciousness may be a critical element of authenticity Dissociations between experience and meta-consciousness raise issues about use of self-reports in this context
–How do self-regulation strategies mediate motivation
Harackiewicz & Durik –Overview People differ in the degree to which their performance is regulated by mastery vs. performance goals Performance predicts performance Mastery predicts interest –Relevance of meta-consciousness How do performance goals help Increased explicit self-regulation Encourages regular meta-consciousness è Less likely to zone out Mastery may not work because it encourages an absence of explicit meta-conscious self-regulation
Devine –Overview People vary in whether their motivation to control the expression of racism is driven by the goal of demonstrating egalitarian views vs. avoiding prejudicial views Internal motivation leads to engaging in behaviors that will encourage perception of egalitarian views External motivation leads to engaging in behaviors that reduce perception of bias. High ems associated with more implicit racism –Implications for meta-consciousness Implicit racism may be experienced but not meta-aware People may vary in the degree to which they are meta-aware of their implicit racism This may impact the strategies they select
Forster and Liberman –Overview Individuals reduce the accessibility of a goal after they accomplish it –Implications of meta-awareness Do people have to be meta-aware of a goal in order for this effect to be observed? Do people need to be meta-aware that goal has been achieved?
Gendolla and Wood –Overview Perception of goal achievability mediates effort which in turn is reflected by changes in cardio-vascular activity. Goal achievability is moderated by Perceived difficulty of the task Perceived ability of the performer –Implications of meta-awareness Are people meta-aware of their appraisals? What happens when one varies the explicitness of these variables? Stereotype threat studies
Ashkanasy & Weiss –Overview Emotion fully mediates the hassles and uplifts associated with job attitudes –Implications of meta-awareness Meta-conscious appraisals of experience based on meta- conscious of appraisals emotion Important to test tacit measures
Rhodewalt – Overview Narcissism may involve high explicit w/ low implicit self-esteem Self-esteem is more linked to social feedback for narcissists –Implications for meta-awareness Narcissists may be constantly meta-conscious in order to protect and bolster their self-esteem.
Forgas- –Overview Affect and motivation have reciprocal effects on each other within the context of a homeostatic model of mood regulation Implicit self-regulation processes serve to restore baseline mood Must be implicit because why would people deliberately reduce their mood. –Implications for meta-awareness Model nicely illustrates the implicit monitoring processes implied in the model.
Strack and Deutsch –Overview Motivation involves the interaction of a reflective and impulsive regulation systems Reflexive system is knowledge based and allows negation Impulsive system is automatic and incapable of negation –Relevance to meta-consciousness Impulsive system typically involves experiential consciousness Reflexive system more often meta-conscious Not equivalent however because it is possible to be reflexive without being meta-conscious
–What is the role of evolutionarily basic goals in mediating motivation?
Spencer, Strahan, Fein, & Zana- –Overview People are sensitive to the activation of implicit goals when in evolutionarily relevant need states Threat Thirst –Implication of meta-awareness Basic evolutionary goal may be experienced w/out meta- awareness.
Aarts & Hassin –Overview Basic need goals can be implicitly activated (casual sex) by having people read about other people achieving that goal –Implication of meta-awareness Goal of desiring sex can be experienced w/out meta- awareness
Neuberg et al. –Overview Goals linked to adaptive outcomes have the most immediate impact Mating Arousal causes men to see arousal in attractive women Threat Self-protective mind set causes men to see aggression in out groups –Relevance of meta-consciousness People may not be meta-aware of the activation of adaptive goals Nevertheless the are likely to be experienced Could emotions be conceived of as the experiential expression of chronically adaptive goals?