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Chapter 3 Emotions, Attitudes, and Job SatisfactionFeelings deserve our attention
Chapter 3 Study QuestionsWhat are emotions and moods? How do emotions and moods influence behavior? What are attitudes and how do they influence behavior? What is job satisfaction and why is it important? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are emotions and moods?Affect Range of emotions and moods that people experience in their life context. Emotions are strong positive or negative feelings directed toward something or someone. Affects have important implications not only for our lives in general but also our behavior at work. Emotions are usually intense and not long-lasting. They are always associated with a source—someone or something that makes us feel the way we do. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are emotions and moods?Emotional intelligence (EI) Ability to understand emotions in ourselves and others and to use that understanding to manage relationships effectively. If you are good at knowing and managing your emotions and are good at reading others’ emotions, you may perform better while interacting with other people. This applies to work and life in general, and to leadership situations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Fig. 3.1: Four Dimensions of Emotionally Intelligent LeadershipFigure 3.1 The four emotional intelligence competencies are self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, and relationship management. Self-awareness - The ability to understand our emotions and their impact on us and others. Social awareness - The ability to empathize and understand the emotions of others. Self-management – The ability to think before acting and control disruptive impulses. Relationship management - The ability to establish rapport with others to build good relationships. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are emotions and moods?Self-conscious emotions Arise from internal sources (shame, guilt, embarrassment, pride) and helps individuals regulate their relationships with others. Social emotions Arise from external sources (pity, envy, jealousy) and information. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are emotions and moods?Moods Generalized positive or negative feelings or states of mind. Moods can persist over time and can affect an individual’s likeability and job performance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are emotions and moods?Figure 3.2 In general, emotions are intense feelings directed at someone or something; they always have rather specific triggers; and they come in many types—anger, fear, happiness, and the like. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are emotions and moods?Joy Major Emotions Anger Love Fear Sadness Moods tend to be more generalized positive or negative feelings. They are less intense than emotions and most often seem to lack a clear source; it’s often hard to identify how or why we end up in a particular mood. But moods tend to be more long-lasting than emotions. Surprise Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations?Emotion and mood contagion – spillover effects of one’s emotions and mood onto others. Emotional labor – relates to the need to show certain emotions in order to perform a job well. Emotional dissonance – emotions we actually feel are inconsistent with the emotions we try to project. Evidence shows that positive and negative emotions are “contagious” in much the same ways, even though the tendency may not be well recognized in work settings. The positive attitude of up beat leaders is often reflected in their employees. Emotional labor isn’t always easy; it can be hard to be consistently “on” in displaying the desired emotions in one’s work. If you’re having a bad mood day or have just experienced an emotional run-in with a neighbor, for example, being “happy” and “helpful” with a demanding customer might seem a little much to ask. Emotional dissonance often requires almost constant self-regulation to display organizationally desired emotions in one’s job. Imagine, for example, how often service workers struggling with personal emotions and moods experience dissonance when having to act positive toward customers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations?Deep acting Trying to modify feelings to better fit the situation. Surface acting Hiding true feelings while displaying different ones. Deep acting and surface acting are two terms reflecting ways of dealing with emotional dissonance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations?Display rules The degree to which it is appropriate to display emotions. Norms for emotional expression vary across cultures. Collectivist cultures, such as Japan, emphasize group relationships. individual emotional displays are less likely to occur and less likely to be accepted in individualistic cultures. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations?Work Environment: Characteristics of job Job demands Emotional labor requirements Job Satisfaction Work Events: Daily hassles Daily uplifts Emotional Reactions: Positive Negative Job Performance Figure 3.3 Affective Events Theory summarizes the discussion of emotions, moods, and human behavior in organizations. The basic notion of the theory is that our emotions and moods are influenced by events involving other people and situations. Our emotions and moods, in turn, influence the work performance and satisfaction of us and others. Personal Predispositions: Personality Mood Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are attitudes and how do they influence behavior?Predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment. Attitudes are inferred from the things people say or through their behavior. Attitudes are influenced by values and are acquired from the same sources— friends, teachers, parents, role models, and culture. Attitudes, however, focus on specific people or objects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are attitudes and how do they influence behavior ?Cognitive component Reflects underlying beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person possesses. Affective component Specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedent condition evidenced in the cognitive component. Behavioral component Intention to behave in a certain way based on the affect in one’s attitude. Cognitive component represents a person’s ideas about someone or something and the conclusions drawn about them. Affective component becomes the actual attitude. Behavioral component is a predisposition to act, but one that may or may not be implemented. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are attitudes and how do they influence behavior?Figure 3.4 Work-related example of three components of attitudes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are attitudes and how do they influence behavior?Cognitive dissonance Describes a state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and/or between attitudes and behavior. Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by: Changing the underlying attitude. Changing future behavior. Developing new ways of explaining or rationalizing the inconsistency. The way we respond to cognitive dissonance is influenced by the degree of control we seem to have over the situation and the rewards involved. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are attitudes and how do they influence behavior ?Job satisfaction An attitude reflecting a person’s positive and negative feelings toward a job, co-workers, and the work environment. Job Involvement Extent to which an individual is dedicated to a job. Helping others realize job satisfaction is considered one hallmark of effective managers. They create work environments in which people achieve high performance and experience high job satisfaction. This concept of job satisfaction is very important in OB. Someone with high job involvement psychologically identifies with her or his job, and, for example, would be expected to work beyond expectations to complete a special project. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What are attitudes and how do the influence behavior ?Organizational Commitment Degree of loyalty an individual feels toward an organization. Rational Commitment – Reflects feelings that job serves one’s financial, developmental, and professional interests. Emotional Commitment – Reflects feelings that what one does is important, valuable and of real benefit to others. Employee Engagement – A positive feeling or strong sense of connection with the organization. Research shows that strong emotional commitments to the organization are much more powerful than rational commitments in positively influencing performance. Active employee engagement shows up as a willingness to help others, to always try to do something extra to improve performance, and to speak positively about the organization. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Your experience… The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) both address components of job satisfaction with which good managers should be concerned. Take the sample survey. The MSQ measures satisfaction with working conditions, chances for advancement, freedom to use one’s own judgment, praise for doing a good job, and feelings of accomplishment, among others. The JDI measures five facets of job satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What is job satisfaction and what are its implications?Five facets of job satisfaction: The work itself Quality of supervision Relationships with co-workers Promotion opportunities Rewards Pay • The work itself — responsibility, interest, and growth • Quality of supervision — technical help and social support • Relationships with co-workers —social harmony and respect • Promotion opportunities — chances for further advancement • Pay — adequacy of pay and perceived equity vis-à-vis others Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What is job satisfaction and what are its implications?Withdrawal behaviors Dissatisfied workers are absent more frequently, more likely to quit, or at least on the lookout for different employment. Employee absenteeism and turnover can result in : Loss of experience Replacement costs for recruitment and training On this issue of turnover and retention, a survey by Salary.com showed not only that employers tend to overestimate the job satisfactions of their employees, they underestimate the amount of job seeking they are doing… The report concluded that “most employers have not placed enough emphasis on important retention strategies.” Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What is job satisfaction and what are its implications?Organizational Citizenship A willingness to “go beyond the call of duty” or “ go the extra mile” in one’s work. Interpersonal organizational citizenship behaviors have individuals doing extra things that help others. Organizational citizenship behaviors advance the performance of the organization as a whole. You might observe interpersonal OCBs in a service worker who is extraordinarily courteous while taking care of an upset customer, or a team member who takes on extra tasks when a co-worker is ill or absent. Examples of organizational OCBs are evident as co-workers who are always willing Volunteers for special committee or task force assignments, and those whose voices are always positive when commenting publicly on their employer. On the other hand, counterproductive workplace behaviors are associated with some form of job dissatisfaction, they purposely disrupt relationships, organizational culture, or performance in the workplace. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What is job satisfaction and what are its implications?Relationship between job satisfaction and job performance – three theories: Satisfaction causes performance. Performance causes satisfaction. Rewards cause satisfaction and performance. Three different positions have been advanced in the satisfaction–performance relationship. The first is that job satisfaction causes performance; in other words, a happy worker is a productive worker. The second is that performance causes job satisfaction. The third is that job satisfaction and performance influence one another, and are mutually affected by other factors such as the availability of rewards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What is job satisfaction and what are its implications?Theory: Satisfaction causes performance Managerial implication — to increase employees’ work performance, make them happy. Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of work performance. Even though some evidence exists for the satisfaction causes performance relationship among professional or higher-level employees, the best conclusion is that job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of individual work performance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What is job satisfaction and what are its implications?Theory: Performance causes satisfaction Managerial implication — try to create high performance as a pathway to job satisfaction. Performance leads to rewards that, in turn, lead to satisfaction. Performance leads to satisfaction only if rewards are perceived as fair and equitable. Research does find a link between individual performance measured at one time and later job satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What is job satisfaction and what are its implications?Figure 3.5 The model suggests that performance leads to rewards that, in turn, lead to satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What is job satisfaction and what are its implications?Theory: rewards cause both satisfaction and performance Managerial implication — right rewards allocated in the right way will positively influence both performance and satisfaction. Performance contingency - size of the reward varies in proportion to the level of performance. Research generally finds that rewards influence satisfaction while performance contingent rewards influence performance. The prevailing management advice is to use performance-contingent rewards well in the attempt to create both. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What do you think… If you won the lotto, would you ever work again? Consider the meanings we derive from work (social identity, accomplishment, achievement). How would you replace these? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Attitudes Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or.
1 Chapter 4 Job Attitudes. 2 Individuals & Attitudes Attitude: An evaluative disposition (toward ____________) when compared against a set of standards.
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