2 I. Spotlights and Illusions A. Spotlight Effect: the erroneous belief that other individualsare paying more attention to your appearance and behaviorthan they actually are. This effect tends to be magnified insocial situations (a) deemed of great personal importanceand (b) with greater numbers of potential observers.B. Illusion of Transparency: the illusion that our attempts toconceal embarrassing emotions are highly unsuccessful, thuscausing those emotions to be critically observed by others.
3 II. Self-Concept: Who am I? A. Looking-glass self: you only know yourself through yourperception of other people’s perceptions of you.B. Self-concept: sense that one’s self is separate from othersand that you exist as an object in the universe; descriptive andevaluative mental picture of one’s abilities and traits.C. Self-schemas: beliefs about yourself that organize and guidehow you process self-relevant information. They serve asshort-cuts that allow you to effortlessly filter out informationyou consider irrelevant to your sense of who you are.D. Schemas: concepts or frameworks that organize andinterpret information.
4 E. Possible Selves: ideas of what we hope to become and of what we hope of not becoming.F. Social Comparison Theory: evaluating one’s abilities bycomparing oneself with others. We tend to feel happier whenwe compare ourselves to people we perceive as inferior toourselves and less happy when we compare ourselves topeople we perceive as superior to ourselves.G. Self-efficacy: Sense of a capability to master challengesand achieve goals.1) Upward Social Comparison: when an individual compares himselfor herself with someone who is more successful regarding a particularability or achievement.2) Downward Social Comparison: when an individual compares himselfor herself with someone who is less successful regarding a particular
5 III. Self and CultureA. Individualism: the concept of giving priority to one’s owngoals over group goals and defining one’s identity in termsof personal attributes rather than group identifications.1) Independent Self: the sense of oneself as special, unique, andseparate from social contexts or group characteristics.B. Collectivism: giving priority to the goals of one’s groups(family members, coworkers, etc.) and defining one’s identityaccordingly.1) Interdependent Self: the sense of self as flexible, variable, andconnected to social contexts and group environments.
7 IV. Self KnowledgeA. Planning Fallacy: the tendency to under-estimate how longit will take to complete a task.B. Self-Knowledge and the Powerful Influence of Emotion1) Regarding self-knowledge, our thoughts and feelings arepowerfully linked.2) Stimulating the emotions you are likely to experience in asituation you are trying to predict in terms of how you’ll feel orbehave can increase self-knowledge accuracy.3) Extreme emotions can interfere with your ability to predicthow personally relevant events will unfold.
8 C. Impact Bias: overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events.D. Psychological Immune System: enables emotionalrecovery and resilience after bad things happen.
9 V. Self-Esteem A. Self-Esteem: our overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth.1) Research has shown that the best way to cultivate andmaintain VALID high self-esteem is to…a) Praise yourself (or receive praise) that is true and specific toidentifiable qualities, characteristics, or skills.b) Continuously strive for improvement.B. Academic Entitlement: expectations of high grades for littleeffort and demanding attitudes towards teachers.
10 C. Self-Esteem and Narcissism: The Recipe for Evil 1) Narcissism: excessive fascination with oneself; excessiveself-love.
11 VI. Self-Control A. Internal versus External Locus of Control… an individual’s belief that the outcomes in one’s life areprimarily determined by one’s own actions and choices(internal locus of control) or by environmental factors, such as other people, physical aspects of the world, and/or spiritual forces (external locus of control).B. Learned Helplessness: hopelessness and resignationlearned when a person perceives no control over repeatedor bad events.C. Self-Determination: development of self-discipline in onearea of your life may cause self-control in other areas as well.
12 D. The Costs of Excess Choice 1) Too many choices can lead to (a) an inability to choose or (b) dissatisfaction with our final choice.2) People tend to be generally happier with decisions when they can’t undo them.3) In sum, we are generally happiest and feel the most in control when we have some versus many choices and make final versus reversible decisions.
13 VII. Self-Serving Biases A. Self-Serving Biases (attributions): attributions that we useto optimize our perception of ourselves. We tend to attributepositive outcomes to ourselves and attribute negativeoutcomes to other factors.B. Can we all be better than average?1) Most people see themselves as better than the average person on a number of dimensions.
14 C. False Consensus Effect: the tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable orunsuccessful behaviors.D. False Uniqueness Effect: the tendency to underestimatethe commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable orsuccessful behaviors.
15 VIII. Self-Presentation A. Self-Handicapping: we intentionally put ourselves at adisadvantage to provide an excuse for an expected defeator failure.B. Self-Presentation: the act of expressing oneself, usuallyin a social context.C. Self-Monitoring: being aware of how one is presentingoneself in a social context and being able to adjust that imagein different social contexts to create favorable impressions.