2 Individual Differences Managers must observe and recognize the differencesStudy (understand) variables that influence individual behaviorDiscover (predict) relationships among the variablesWe will focus on personality, perception, and attitudesAbilities and SkillsDemographicsRacial and Cultural Diversity
3 Behavior is… Caused Goal-directed Observed and measurable Not directly observed (thinking, perceiving)MotivatedDesired result is effective performance
4 Management of Poor Impressions Becker & Martin (1995)Management of Poor ImpressionsIndividualDifferencesMotives forIntentionallyLooking BadSituationalFactorsPerceived Efficacyof DifferentMethodsIntent to ManagePoor ImpressionsIntended Methodof ManagingManagingPeople’s motives for intentionally looking bad are a function of individual differences and situational factors. The motives for looking bad are different from the motives for looking good.Possible relevant individual differences are the need for achievement and self-esteem. + Propose that individuals with a high need for achievement will be less likely to engage in the management of poor impressions because this behavior would not generally be expected to result in long-term career advancement. + Those with low self-esteem is consistent with managing poor impressions due to negative self-perceptions.Possible situational factors are task characteristics and leader attributes. Jobs with low autonomy, insufficient feedback can set the stage for task avoidance and exit. Leaders who consider needs of employees and supply reasonable goals can reduce motive for avoidance and exitPerceived efficacy is also a function of individual differences and situational factors. Self-efficacy would likely guide looking bad if they expect it would be successful.Perceived efficacy and the intent to manage determines which methods an individual uses. Once that method is chosen, the management of poor impression will take place.
5 Seven Major Mental Abilities Verbal comprehension: Meaning of words and reading comprehensionWord fluency: Ability to produce isolated words to meet specific requirementsNumerical: Arithmetic computationSpatial: Perceive spatial patterns and visualize geometric shapesMemory: Good rote memory of words, symbols, and listsPerceptual speed: Perception of similarities and differences in figuresInductive reasoning: Reasoning from specifics to general conclusion
6 Performance Depends on the Right Combination of Effort, Ability, and Skill
7 Individual Psychological Variables Perception – cognitive process that gives meaning to the environment – organize and interpret stimuli. Easy to make mistakes based on the context of the stimuliOne’s characteristics affect the characteristics identified in others and people who accept themselves are more likely to see favorable aspects of othersNeeds, Emotions, and Situational factors can influence perceptions
8 Individual Psychological Variables Attribution – provides insight into the process by which we assign causes or motives to people’s behavior.Dispositional attributions emphasize some aspect of the individual such as ability, skill, or motivation.Situational attribution – emphasizes the environment’s effect on behavior (tardiness due to traffic rather than boredom of work). We tend to compare the person’s behavior to others in similar situations, compare to previous experience with the person, and whether the person consistently engages in a certain behavior.
9 Individual Psychological Variables Attribution errorsAttributional bias is a tendency to prefer one type of behavior explanation over the other. We tend to minimize or ignore situational factors, even when the situation may completely explain the behavior of the individualActor-Observer bias – when a person attributes another person’s behavior to personal traits and attributes her own behavior to situational causes.
10 Individual Psychological Variables Attitudes – determinants of behavior because they are linked with perception, personality, and motivation. An attitude is a positive or negative feeling or state of readiness, learned and organized through experience, that exerts specific influence on a person’s response to people, objects, and situations.Attitudes are learnedAttitudes define predispositionsAttitudes provide emotional basis of our interpersonal relations and identification with othersAttitudes are organized – can be long term but subject to change
12 Individual Psychological Variables An individual’s intention to engage in a given behavior is the best predictor of that behavior. For example, the quickest way of determining whether an individual will quit his or her job is to have an objective third party ask if he or she intends to quit. Behavioral intentions are good predictors of employee turnover (more so than job satisfaction or organizational commitment).Although this allows us to predict, it does not indicate why. So, we consider their relevant attitudes. Behavior intentions are influenced by one’s attitude toward the behavior and by perceived norms about exhibiting the behavior. Attitudes and subjective norms are determined by personal beliefs.
13 Individual Psychological Variables Beliefs influence attitudes – beliefs are mental representations of relevant surroundings – and are based on cause and effect relationships. For example, we believe a laughing co-worker is happy. Based on the model, an individual will have positive attitudes towards performing the behavior when she believes the behavior is associated with positive outcomes.Beliefs influence subjective norms – SN refer to perceived social pressure to perform a specific behavior. SN can exert a strong influence on behavior intentions of those that are sensitive to opinions of respected role models.
14 Individual Psychological Variables How do we change a person’s attitudes?Trust the messengerWhat is the messageWhat is the situationJob satisfaction is an attitude that individuals have about their jobs – it results from perceptions, based on work environment factors. How do you measure job satisfaction?Why do we study job satisfaction with attitudes?
15 Satisfaction and Performance Does job satisfaction cause high performance? Does high performance cause job satisfaction? Rewards moderate job satisfaction and job performance?Research shows that the relationship between JP and JS is not strong – so why are we still interested in this area?
16 Determinants and Consequences of Organization-Based Self-Esteem Determinants of OBSEFactors Influencedby OBSEGlobal self-esteemJob performanceIntrinsic motivationGeneral satisfactionCitizenship behaviorOrganizational commitment and satisfactionManagerial respectOrganizational structureJob complexityOBSE
17 Self-EfficacySelf-efficacy: “A person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task.”A Model of Self-EfficacySources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs: - Prior experience - Behavior models - Persuasion from others - Assessment of physical/emotional state
19 Implications of Self-Efficacy Job DesignTraining and DevelopmentSelf-ManagementGoal SettingCoachingLeadershipRewards
20 Locus of Control Internal External Performance results from individual’s own abilitiesGreater work motivationStronger expectationsHigher performance on learning tasksHigher salaries and increasesExternalPerformance results from factors beyond the individual’s controlGreater levels of anxiety than Internals